The point in this hadith, is that the use for these kinds fo jar's was known (for drinking nabidh or alcohol).
So the prophet basically didn't forbid a color or kind of jar, but he forbad drinking alcohol.
That is what can be understood from the commentary of al-Qastalani in his Irshad as-Sari إرشاد الساري.
An other Interpretation is that these kinds of jars either accelerate the process of fermentation or they hinder a person to smell the odor of alcohol if something inside was fermented and if nabidh becomes alcohol it certainly is haram.
For example in 'omdat al-Qari عمدة القاري of the hanafi scholar al-'Ayni you may read (My own translation take it cerafully:
وَقَالَ الْخطابِيّ: لم يعلق الحكم فِي ذَلِك بخضرة الْجَرّ وبياضه، وَإِنَّمَا يعلق بالإسكار
Al-Khattabi said: the verdict here is not related to the greenness or whiteness of the jars, but with intoxication (from what is inside it)
وَذَلِكَ أَن الجرار أوعية مُنْتِنَة قد يتَغَيَّر فِيهَا الشَّرَاب وَلَا يشْعر بِهِ فنهوا عَن الانتباذ فِيهَا
that is because the jars are vessels with a strong (bad) smell, where a liquid may change (ferment) without them being able to realize that this happens, that's why they have been prohibited from using them.
they have been asked to use other kind of vessels -for nabidh- instead (water skins):
Prepare Nabidh in small waterskins. (sahih Muslim)
This because the feretation can easily be observed in these kinds of vessels.
Back to the comment of al-Khattabi:
وَأما ذكر الخضرة فَمن أجل أَن الجرار الَّتِي كَانُوا ينتبذون فِيهَا كَانَت خضرًا والأبيض بمثابته فِيهِ والآنية لَا تحرم شَيْئا وَلَا تحلله
The quoting of greenness was because the jars they used to use to make nabidhah was green and white and the vessels itself don't make any thing halal nor haram.
Why was nabidh mixing fresh dates with dry forbidden?
Prohibition from drinking water from a broken or a cracked vessel