2

I was always under the impression that the Prophet's (sas) family is considered Ahle Bayt ("People of the House") which means His wives and children, but I found that my Shia friends consider the Ahle Bayt only

  1. Hazrat Fatimah (r.a.)
  2. Hazrat Ali (r.a.)
  3. Hazrat Hassan (r.a.)
  4. Hazrat Hussain (r.a.)

I asked them: Why do you consider the above persons only as the Ahle Bayt? Why do you not consider the Prophet's (sas) other daughter's and their children as Ahle Bayt?

They said that the Prophet (sas) brought only these 4 persons under his cloak and called them his Ahle Bayt. Then I asked them: Why do you not consider the children of Hazrat Hassan's (r.a.) children as Ahle Bayt? But they did not have an answer. I think all the children of the Prophet (sas) are Ahle Bayt.

3

I have read this in Sahih Muslim, where Hussain bin Sabra asked the same question to the Prophet's companion, Zaid bin Arqam. Here is the answer to the same question.

Bk 31, Number 5920: Yazid b. Hayyan reported, I went along with Husain b. Sabra and 'Umar b. Muslim to Zaid b. Arqam and, as we sat by his side, Husain said to him: Zaid. you have been able to acquirea great virtue that you saw Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) listened to his talk, fought by his side in (different) battles, offered prayer behind me. Zaid, you have in fact earned a great virtue. Zaid, narrate to us what you heard from Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him). He said: I have grown old and have almost spent my age and I have forgotten some of the things which I remembered in connection with Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), so accept whatever I narrate to you, and which I do not narrate do not compel me to do that. He then said: One day Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) stood up to deliver sermon at a watering place known as Khumm situated between Mecca and Medina. He praised Allah, extolled Him and delivered the sermon and. exhorted (us) and said: Now to our purpose. O people, I am a human being. I am about to receive a messenger (the angel of death) from my Lord and I, in response to Allah's call, (would bid good−bye to you), but I am leaving among you two weighty things: the one being the Book of Allah in which there is right guidance and light, so hold fast to the Book of Allah and adhere to it. He exhorted (us) (to hold fast) to the Book of Allah and then said: The second are the members of my household I remind you (of your duties) to the members of my family. He (Husain) said to Zaid: Who are the members of his household? Aren't his wives the members of his family? Thereupon he said: His wives are the members of his family (but here) the members of his family are those for whom acceptance of Zakat is forbidden. And he said: Who are they? Thereupon he said: 'Ali and the offspring of 'Ali, 'Aqil and the offspring of 'Aqil and the offspring of Ja'far and the offspring of 'Abbas. Husain said: These are those for whom the acceptance of Zakat is forbidden. Zaid said: Yes

You can clearly see Hussain bin Sabra asked him

Aren't his wives the members of his family? To which The companion of Prophet (saww) replied His wives are the members of his family (but here) the members of his family are those for whom acceptance of Zakat is forbidden. And he said: Who are they? Thereupon he said: 'Ali and the offspring of 'Ali, 'Aqil and the offspring of 'Aqil and the offspring of Ja'far and the offspring of 'Abbas. Husain said: These are those for whom the acceptance of Zakat is forbidden. Zaid said: Yes.

1

Generally speaking, when using the words ahl al-bayt (people of the house, Arabic: أهل البيت), the wives and daughters are included.

When Allah ﷻ sent the angels over to Ibrāhīm and they gave him and his wife the good tidings of a baby (Prophet Is'hāq), the angels set the mercy of Allah on the people of the house to mean Ibrāhīm and his wife, Sārah:

قَالَتْ يَا وَيْلَتَىٰ أَأَلِدُ وَأَنَا عَجُوزٌ وَهَٰذَا بَعْلِي شَيْخًا إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَشَيْءٌ عَجِيبٌ قَالُوا أَتَعْجَبِينَ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ ۖ رَحْمَتُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ إِنَّهُ حَمِيدٌ مَّجِيدٌ

She said, "Woe to me! Shall I give birth while I am an old woman and this, my husband, is an old man? Indeed, this is an amazing thing!" They said, "Are you amazed at the decree of Allah? May the mercy of Allah and His blessings be upon you, people of the house. Indeed, He is Praiseworthy and Honorable."

Surat Hud 11:72-73

In the continuation of the same story, the angels went to the people of Lot and destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, except for one family and that is of Lot's. The phrase used to describe the family of Lot was āl Lūt (Arabic: آل لوط), which included Lot himself, his wife, and his daughters. His wife was then singled out as the only exception to perish from among āl Lūt:

إِلَّا آلَ لُوطٍ إِنَّا لَمُنَجُّوهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ إِلَّا امْرَأَتَهُ قَدَّرْنَا إِنَّهَا لَمِنَ الْغَابِرِينَ

Except the family of Lot; indeed, we will save them all Except his wife." Allah decreed that she is of those who remain behind.

Surat Al-Hijr 15:59-60

As for the verse that talks about ahl al-bayt in the Qur'an, the context of the verses shows that the speech is being address to the wives of the Prophet ﷺ that they are unlike other women, then it passes on six commands to them in order for Allah ﷻ to purify them, then it reminds them to remember the teachings that they come across in their houses:

يَا نِسَاءَ النَّبِيِّ لَسْتُنَّ كَأَحَدٍ مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ إِنِ اتَّقَيْتُنَّ فَلَا تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِي فِي قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ وَقُلْنَ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا

O wives of the Prophet, you are not like anyone among women. If you fear Allah, then do not be soft in speech [to men], lest he in whose heart is disease should covet, but speak with appropriate speech.

وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَىٰ وَأَقِمْنَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتِينَ الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِعْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا

And abide in your houses and do not display yourselves as [was] the display of the former times of ignorance. And establish prayer and give zakah and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah intends only to remove from you the impurity [of sin], O people of the [Prophet's] household, and to purify you with [extensive] purification.

وَاذْكُرْنَ مَا يُتْلَىٰ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ مِنْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَالْحِكْمَةِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ لَطِيفًا خَبِيرًا

And remember what is recited in your houses of the verses of Allah and wisdom. Indeed, Allah is ever Subtle and Acquainted [with all things].

Surat Al-Ahzab 33:32-34

It is obvious that linguistically the entire speech is delivered to the wives, including the verse (إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا). It is important to note that linguistically this does not limit the term ahl al-bayt to only the wives.

The hadith about the cloak you referred to was documented in several books of hadith and through a number of chains of narrations:

قالت عائشة خرج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم غداة وعليه مرط مرحل من شعر أسود فجاء الحسن بن عليا فأدخله ثم جاء الحسين فدخل معه ثم جاءت فاطمة فأدخلها ثم جاء علي فأدخله ثم قال: إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا‏

'A'isha reported that Allah's Apostle (ﷺ) went out one norning wearing a striped cloak of the black camel's hair that there came Hasan ibn 'Ali. He wrapped hitn under it, then came Husain and he wrapped him under it along with the other one (Hasan). Then came Fatima and he took her under it, then came 'Ali and he also took him under it and then said: "Allah only desires to take away any uncleanliness from you, O people of the household, and purify you (thorough purifying)."

Sahih Muslim, Book 44, Hadith 91

The hadith as is documented in Sahih Muslim neither includes nor excludes the wives of the Prophet ﷺ or any of his other daughters. The hadith has additions through different chains of narration, but none uses an exclusivity form to say the ones under the cloak are exclusively ahl al-bayt. In fact, the hadith of Jubair bin Mut'im extends the concept of the Prophet's family from Bani 'Abdul-Muttalib to Bani Hāshim:

عن جبير بن مطعم، قال مشيت أنا وعثمان بن عفان، فقال: يا رسول الله أعطيت بني المطلب وتركتنا، وإنما نحن وهم منك بمنزلة واحدة. فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: إِنَّمَا بَنُو هَاشِمٍ وَبَنُو الْمُطَّلِبِ شَىْءٌ وَاحِدٌ

Narrated Jubair bin Mut'im: 'Uthman bin 'Affan went (to the Prophet) and said, "O Allah's Messenger (ﷺ)! You gave property to Bani Al-Muttalib and did not give us, although we and they are of the same degree of relationship to you." The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "Only Bani Hashim and Bani Al Muttalib are one thing (as regards family status).

Sahih al-Bukhari, Book 61, Hadith 12

In another long hadith narrated through the authority of Yazīd ibn Hayyān shows that his wives are considered among ahl al-bayt (partially quoted), but also specifically included 'Ali, 'Aqīl, Ja'far, 'Abbās, and their offsprings:

ثم قال قام رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يوما فينا خطيبا بماء يدعى خما بين مكة والمدينة فحمد الله وأثنى عليه ووعظ وذكر ثم قال: أَمَّا بَعْدُ أَلاَ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ فَإِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ يُوشِكُ أَنْ يَأْتِيَ رَسُولُ رَبِّي فَأُجِيبَ وَأَنَا تَارِكٌ فِيكُمْ ثَقَلَيْنِ أَوَّلُهُمَا كِتَابُ اللَّهِ فِيهِ الْهُدَى وَالنُّورُ فَخُذُوا بِكِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَاسْتَمْسِكُوا بِهِ. فحث على كتاب الله ورغب فيه ثم قال: وَأَهْلُ بَيْتِي أُذَكِّرُكُمُ اللَّهَ فِي أَهْلِ بَيْتِي أُذَكِّرُكُمُ اللَّهَ فِي أَهْلِ بَيْتِي أُذَكِّرُكُمُ اللَّهَ فِي أَهْلِ بَيْتِي. فقال له حصين: ومن أهل بيته يا زيد؟ أليس نساؤه من أهل بيته؟ قال :نساؤه من أهل بيته ولكن أهل بيته من حرم الصدقة بعده. قال: ومن هم؟ قال: هم آل علي وآل عقيل وآل جعفر وآل عباس. قال: كل هؤلاء حرم الصدقة؟ قال: نعم

He then said: One day Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) stood up to deliver sermon at a watering place known as Khumm situated between Mecca and Medina. He praised Allah, extolled Him and delivered the sermon and. exhorted (us) and said: Now to our purpose. O people, I am a human being. I am about to receive a messenger (the angel of death) from my Lord and I, in response to Allah's call, (would bid good-bye to you), but I am leaving among you two weighty things: the one being the Book of Allah in which there is right guidance and light, so hold fast to the Book of Allah and adhere to it. He exhorted (us) (to hold fast) to the Book of Allah and then said: The second are the members of my household I remind you (of your duties) to the members of my family. He (Husain) said to Zaid: Who are the members of his household? Aren't his wives the members of his family? Thereupon he said: His wives are the members of his family (but here) the members of his family are those for whom acceptance of Zakat is forbidden. And he said: Who are they? Thereupon he said: 'Ali and the offspring of 'Ali, 'Aqil and the offspring of 'Aqil and the offspring of Ja'far and the offspring of 'Abbas. Husain said: These are those for whom the acceptance of Zakat is forbidden. Zaid said: Yes.

Sahih Muslim, Book 44, Hadith 55

  • It's a way of speaking brother. When there are inclusions, then thos included are included. Those not included are not. Otherwise we could say that any John Dick and Harry was also not excluded and they can also be part of the family. specifically in the Sahih Muslim, Book 44, Hadith 55, the last narration you mentioned, the prophet excludes his wives. Who are the members of his household? Aren't his wives the members of his family? Thereupon he said: His wives are the members of his family (but here) the members of his family are those for whom acceptance of Zakat is forbidden – Honey Feb 15 at 22:05
1

Ahlul Bayt of Prophet Muhammad are regarded as the same as cloak people, namely: Ali, Fatimah, Hassan and Hussain (a.s.). There are many hadiths (Islamic traditions) which have been narrated by both Shia and Sunni scholars, and prove the issue.

In order to elucidate the issue, it ought to be paid heed that the word/phrase Ahl al-Bayt is considered as a Qur'anic, hadith and also theological term which means the family (household) of the noble Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him and his family). For instance, this phrase has been utilized in the Holy Qur'an --in "purity" verse-- (33:33):

انما یرید الله لیذهب عنکم الرجس اهل البیت و یطهرکم تطهیرا"”

(Verily Allah desires to rid you of impurities, Ahlul-Bayt, and purify you; a through purification)

Of note:

There are differences of opinions amongst the commentators of the Quran, the traditionalists, and the theologians regarding who are included in the explanation of this verse: 1. Some Sunni commentators of the Quran believe that with taking the verses that come before this and after this verse into account (they are about the wives of the Prophet of Islam) this verse is only includes the wives of the Prophet (s). To support this claim they narrate a tradition by Ibn ‘Abbās regarding ‘Akramah, the murderer of Ibn Jubayr and Ibn Sā’ib, which stated: “‘Akramah was in the marketplace and screamed out that the Ahlul-Bayt of the Prophet (s) are only his wives and that he would perform mubāhilah with anyone who rejected that.”1

Some Sunni commentators of the Quran and all Shia commentators criticize this opinion and say that if the wives of the Prophet (s) were meant in this verse it would be suitable, just like the previous and later verses which were feminine, for the two you/s in this verse to be feminine as well. But, this is not the case; this sentence is addressed to the second person in a plural and masculine way which shows that what those commentators said was wrong.

Their use of this tradition has also been criticized. Abū Hayyān Ghurnātī, who is Sunni, wrote that the tradition of Ibn ‘Abbās is not authentic. Ibn Kathīr also said that if what is meant by that tradition is that the verse of purity has been revealed about the Prophet’s wives it would be correct, but if what is meant is that the only instances of this verse are the Prophet’s wives and nobody else it would be incorrect because there are many traditions which negate that.[2]

But, as we have alluded to Ibn Kathīr’s statement that the verse is revealed about the Prophet’s wives is also not correct because, first, it is against the content of the verse and second, it is in opposition to traditions that he accepts.

  1. Another group of Sunni commentators of the Quran believe that Ahlul-Bayt in the verse refers to the Prophet’s wives as well as ‘Alī, Fātimah, Hassan, and Hussayn (a).[3] It should be noted that those who make this claim do not have any tradition to support it.

  2. Some commentators of the Quran say that apparently the verse is general and includes all of the Prophet’s (s) family: his wives, children, close family members, and even his servants. Tha‘labī says that it includes all of the Hāshim tribe or at least the believers of the Hāshim tribe.[4] This view does not have any tradition to support it as well.

  3. Some commentators of the Quran say that it is possible that the people meant by Ahlul-Bayt are those who are forbidden from accepting charity. This opinion is based on a tradition by Zayd bin Arqam who was asked: “Who are the Prophet’s (s) Ahlul-Bayt? Are the wives of the prophet (s) included?” He answered: “The wives are also part of the Ahlul-Bayt, but the Prophet’s (s) Ahlul-Bayt are people who are forbidden from accepting charity: the family of ‘Alī, the family of ‘Aqīl, the family of Ja‘far, and the family of ‘Abbās.”[5] According to Abū al-Fatūh Rāzī, this opinion is rare and does not have a foundation.

  4. All Shia commentators of the Quran and many Sunni ones – using evidence and many traditions from the Noble Prophet (s), Imām ‘Alī, Imām Hassan, Imām Hussayn, Imām Sajjād, and other Imāms (a) as well as Umm Salmah, ‘Ā’ishah, Abū Sa‘īd Khadrī, Ibn ‘Abbās, and other companions – strongly believe that the verse of purity was revealed about the companions of the kisā’: Prophet Muhammad (s), ‘Alī, Fātimah, Hassan, and Hussayn (a). They also believe that the term Ahlul-Bayt refers to them specifically.

The only question that comes to mind is why was an issue that does not include the Prophet’s (s) wives mentioned in the middle of a discussion regarding the duties of the Prophet’s wives?

There are many answers to this question, for example:

  1. Tabarasī said: “This is not the only case where verses of the Quran about different matters are connected together. The Quran is full of similar cases. There are also many instances of such a thing in elegant Arabic writings and poetry.”[6]

  2. Allamah Tabātabā’ī (r) added another answer to this answer and wrote: “There is no proof that the verse

«انما یرید الله لیذهب عنکم الرجس اهل البیت و یطهرکم تطهیراً»

(Verily Allah desires to rid you of impurities, Ahlul-Bayt, and purify you; a through purification) was revealed along with those verses, on the other hand it is easily understood from traditions that this part was revealed separately and was, at the order of the Prophet (s) or when the verses of the Quran were gathered after his demise, put next to those verses.”[7]

  1. The following has been mentioned in Tafsīr Namūnah: “The third answer that can be given for his question is that the Quran wants to tell the Prophet’s (s) wives: ‘You are in a family where some family members are infallible and some are people who have been raised under the shade of infallibility. Therefore it is incumbent for you to protect yourselves more than others and do not forget that being in a family that has five sinless individuals is a grave responsibility as Allah and His creation have high expectations of him.’”[8]

Of course, there are many hadiths (narrations/traditions) in regards to the circumstances of this Ayah (verse) revelation, and the meaning of the this Ayah; we can divide those hadiths in the categories below:

  1. Traditions that clearly state that the circumstances of the revelation of this verse and the meaning of the verse – the meaning of the Ahlul-Bayt – are the five people of the cloak.[9]

  2. Traditions which support the kisā’ tradition: traditions related by Abū Sa‘īd Khadrī, Anas bin Mālik, Ibn ‘Abbās, Abū al-Hamrā’, and Abū Barazah which were related after the event of the kisā’ and after the revelation of this verse. The Prophet of Islam for 1 month, 40 days, six months, or nine months at the time of the morning prayer or at the times of the five daily prayers would go to the door of ‘Alī and Fātimah’s (a) house and say: “Peace be upon you, Ahlul-Bayt, and the mercies and blessings of Allah…” (السلام علیکم اهل البیت و رحمة الله و برکاته، الصلاة یرحمکم الله) He would then recite the verse of purity.[10]

In Sharh Ihqāq al-Haqq[11] after collecting 70 famous Sunni sources in this regard it is mentioned that Shia sources are even more than this.[12]

So this matter is for certain from the viewpoint of traditions that the people meant in the verse 33:33 are the Prophet, ‘Alī, Fātimah, Hassan, and Hussayn (a).

This term Ahlul-Bayt in traditions has been used for the rest of the Imāms from Imām ‘Alī bin al-Hussayn (Imām Sajjād) to the Imām of the age (aj).

Abū Sa‘īd Khadrī narrated from the Messenger of Allah (s): “I will leave with you two weighty things: one, the book of Allah which is a rope lowered from the skies to the Earth, and the other is my progeny and Ahlul-Bayt. These two will not be separated from each other until the Day of Resurrection.”[13]

Abū Ghafārī says that the Noble Prophet (s) said: “The likeness of my Ahlul-Bayt is like that of Noah’s ark. Whoever jumps aboard is saved and whoever does not is drowned.”[14] ...


References:

0

Here is an answer that can explain both what your friend said (the Prophet (sas) brought only these 4 persons under his cloak and called them his Ahle Bayt) and what the verse mentioned by @Ali Rabah Abdessamad in his answer (the verse define as "ahl lbayt" the wifes of the prophet):

First, the verse is revealed to the prophet, characterizing the prophet wife's as "Ahl albayt". Second, and because both the Arabic meaning of the term "Ahl albayt" and the verse don't integrate the 4 persons mentioned by your friend, then for this cause, the prophet wanted to "add" the 4 persons, in order to show us how important they are to him, and therefore how important they should be to us.

Now this misconception your friend had, resulted directly from the fact that he privileges the hadith text, that fits his objective, upon the Quran text, which questions his opinion about the Prophet's wifes.

0

What they told you about is wrong, why? Simply because Allah said:

( يا نساء النبي لستن كأحد من النساء إن اتقيتن فلا تخضعن بالقول فيطمع الذي في قلبه مرض وقلن قولا معروفا وقرن في بيوتكن ولا تبرجن تبرج الجاهلية الأولى وأقمن الصلاة وآتين الزكاة وأطعن الله ورسوله إنما يريد الله ليذهب عنكم الرجس أهل البيت ويطهركم تطهيرا)

So, this aya is very clear, all Mohamed's wives are Ahl bayt, adding to those, who was a bleviere of his sacrifice.

  • Please add an English translation to the ayah and format your answer. – Ahmed May 19 '18 at 16:14

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