I understand the view Muslims have of Christians where they associate Jesus as a partner with Allah. I am unsure why Jews would be considered in the same situation as Christians as I thought they associated no partners with Allah, so why would they still not be considered people of the book?

Say: "O People of the Book! come to common terms as between us and you: That we worship none but Allah; that we associate no partners with him; that we erect not, from among ourselves, Lords and patrons other than Allah." If then they turn back, say ye: "Bear witness that we (at least) are Muslims (bowing to Allah's Will).(Aal-Emran:64)

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    Jews and Christians are People of the Book. And only a portion of the Jews associated Ezra, the majority did not.
    – user2350
    Jul 18 '13 at 2:26

The Jews say, "Ezra is the son of Allah "; and the Christians say, "The Messiah is the son of Allah ." That is their statement from their mouths; they imitate the saying of those who disbelieved [before them]. May Allah destroy them; how are they deluded? (Surat At-Tawbah 9/30)

They have taken their scholars and monks as lords besides Allah , and [also] the Messiah, the son of Mary. And they were not commanded except to worship one God; there is no deity except Him. Exalted is He above whatever they associate with Him. (Surat At-Tawbah 9/31)

From these verses, we can understand that at least some Jews claimed such thing. But this doesn't make them out of the People of Scripture. The People of Scripture is a term used for Christians and Jews. Their wrong believes or actions don't change this.

Neither those who disbelieve from the People of the Scripture nor the polytheists wish that any good should be sent down to you from your Lord. But Allah selects for His mercy whom He wills, and Allah is the possessor of great bounty. (Surat Al-Baqarah 2/105)

As you can see here, there may be disbelievers inside the People of the Scripture.

O People of the Scripture, why do you argue about Abraham while the Torah and the Gospel were not revealed until after him? Then will you not reason? (Surat 'Āli `Imrān 3/65)

In this verse, you can see the People of the Scripture is a sum of Christians and Jews.

In the verse you gave, it is not said "they worship only to Allah", rather it is an invitation "to worship only to Allah". Otherwise, it would contradict with the verses I gave, especially with "Surat At-Tawbah 9/30" and "9/31".

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