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I know there are several days aside from Ramadhan, during which Islam advises to observe fasting. I would like know what those days are.

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The following are the occasions on which is suggested to fast:

  • Mondays and Thursdays. Source
  • Fasting the 13, 14 and 15 of every month. Source
  • The tenth of Muharram. Source
  • the of Dhul-Hijja (The day of Arafah). Source
  • Six days of Shawwal. Source
  • The ninth day of Muharram. Source
  • The Fasting of Dawood (Peace be upon Him). Source
1

Here is a hadith in Sahih Muslim that is at least one answer to your question:

He was then asked about fasting for a day and breaking on the other, whereupon he said: That is the fasting of my brother David (peace be upon him). He was then asked about fasting on Monday, whereupon he said: It was the day on which I was born. on which I was commissioned with prophethood or revelation was sent to me, (and he further) said: Three days' fasting every month and of the whole of Ramadan every year is a perpetual fast. He was asked about fasting on the day of 'Arafa (9th of Dhu'I-Hijja), whereupon he said: It expiates the sins of the preceding year and the coming year. He was asked about fasting on the day of 'Ashura (10th of Muharram), whereupon be said: It expiates the sins of the preceding year.

From http://sunnah.com/muslim/14#253 (what is quoted above is a part of the full hadith - click on the link for the full hadith)

To summarize fasts from this hadith:

  • Fasting every other day is the best (the fast of Prophet Dawud)
  • Fasting on Mondays
  • Fasting thrice a month (13-15: the "White Days")
  • Fasting on Arafah day (9 Dhul Hijjah)
  • Fasting on the 10th of Muharram
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  • 1
    note that the three days of each month are days 13-14-15 of each arabic month
    – Zeina
    Oct 30 '12 at 18:48
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    @Zeina - jazakillahu khair for pointing that out. I know there are other ahadith that point that out, feel free to post as another, more detailed answer :)
    – Ansari
    Oct 30 '12 at 18:55

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