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After having their monthly menstruation, females must purify and cleanse themselves. But how do they do this? I get that they must instantly have a shower, but is there a specific way to do it, or any particular dua they need to recite?

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    By the standard ghusl: pouring water on her body at leasr 3 times. And try to let water reach all her body. – Medi1Saif Jul 18 '17 at 20:29
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There's a hadith about this:

It was narrated from 'Aishah that: Asma asked the Messenger of Allah about bathing after ones's period. He said: "One of you should take her water and lote leaves, and purify herself well, or thoroughly. Then she should pour water over her head and rub it vigorously so that the water reaches the roots of her hair. Then she should take a piece of cotton perfumed with musk and purify herself with it." Asma said: "How should I purify myself with it?" He said: "Subhan Allah! Purify yourself with it!" 'Aishah said, as if whispering to her: "Wipe away the traces of blood with it." -- Sunan Ibn Majah [grade: sahih]

Most of this a woman would do ordinarily when taking a shower and performing ghusl.

I've never heard about a requirement of it being instantaneous; it does seem impractical to take a shower at a moment's notice (e.g. what if you're outdoors?).

4

Ghusl (bath) is same for sexual impurity or menstruation.

Apart from cleaning obvious traces of impurities, the essential parts of ghusl are:

  1. Pouring water on the whole body so that no patch remains dry at the end.Agreed upon
  2. Having the intention of doing ghusl Shafis, Malikis
  3. Rubbing the body with your hands or a tool Malikis
  4. Rinsing the mouth and nostrils Hanafis

These are what have been derived from the apparent meaning of the words as used in the Quran. Any procedure that satisfies the above will be a valid ghusl and will cleanse you.

References:

Islamic Jurispudence according to the four schools

And

Tafsir Qurtubi on 4:43

وقال الجمهور من العلماء وجماعة الفقهاء: يُجزِىء الجُنُب صَبُّ الماء والانغماس فيه إذا أسبغ وعمّ وإن لم يتدلّك

The majority of the Ulema and a group of the Fuqha said: It is enough to pour water or to jump into water, when it reaches the whole body.

فالمشهور من مذهب مالك أنه لا يجزِئه حتى يتدلّك

Imam Malik's well known Madhab is that Ghusl is not valid unless one rubs their body.

وقد بالغ قوم فأوجبوا المضمضة والاستنشاق؛ لقوله تعالى: { حَتَّىٰ تَغْتَسِلُواْ } منهم أبو حنيفة

A group considers rinsing and inhaling water to be obligatory because of Allah's saying حَتَّىٰ تَغْتَسِلُواْ and among them is Abu Hanifa

قال علماؤنا: ولا بدّ في غسل الجنابة من النّيّة؛ لقوله تعالى: { حَتَّىٰ تَغْتَسِلُواْ } وذلك يقتضي النية؛ وبه قال مالك والشافعيّ وأحمد وإسحاق وأبو ثور

Our Ulema say: It is essential to do the ghusl of janabah with the intention because of Allah's saying حَتَّىٰ تَغْتَسِلُواْ which requires intention. And this is also the saying of Malik, Shafi, Ahmad, Ishaq and Abu Thaur

وقال أبو حنيفة وأصحابه: كل طهارة بالماء فإنها تُجزِىء بغير نية

Abu Hanifa and his companions stated: Purity achieved through water is valid when it is without intention.


The Sunnah procedure, which is virtuous but not essential, is outlined in various hadith such as the one quoted in Rebecca's answer. Others include:

عن عايشة، قالت كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم اذا اغتسل من الجنابة يبدا فيغسل يديه ثم يفرغ بيمينه على شماله فيغسل فرجه ثم يتوضا وضوءه للصلاة ثم ياخذ الماء فيدخل اصابعه في اصول الشعر حتى اذا راى ان قد استبرا حفن على راسه ثلاث حفنات ثم افاض على ساير جسده ثم غسل رجليه

When Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) bathed because of sexual intercourse, he first washed his hands: he then poured water with his right hand on his left hand and washed his private parts. He then performed ablution as is done for prayer'. He then took some water and put his fingers and moved them through the roots of his hair. And when he found that these had been properly mois- tened, then poured three handfuls on his head and then poured water over his body and subsequently washed his feet.

Sahih Muslim

قال قالت ميمونة وضعت لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ماء يغتسل به، فافرغ على يديه، فغسلهما مرتين مرتين او ثلاثا، ثم افرغ بيمينه على شماله، فغسل مذاكيره، ثم دلك يده بالارض، ثم مضمض واستنشق، ثم غسل وجهه ويديه ثم غسل راسه ثلاثا، ثم افرغ على جسده، ثم تنحى من مقامه فغسل قدميه

I placed water for the bath of Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) and he poured water over his hands and washed them twice or thrice; then he poured water with his right hand over his left and washed his private parts (with his left hand). He rubbed his hand over the earth and rinsed his mouth and washed his nose by putting water in it and blowing it out. After that he washed his face, both fore arms and head thrice and then poured water over his body. He withdrew from that place and washed his feet.

Sahih Bukhari

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