I'm surprised by the use of the word captive in this hadith:
And indeed I order you to be good to the women, for they are but captives with you over whom you have no power than that, except if they come with manifest Fahishah (evil behavior). -- Jami` at-Tirmidhi 1163 [grade: sahih]
Islam Q&A interprets the word captive semi-literally: "...a woman is like a slave or prisoner of her husband, and she cannot go out of his house except with his permission...". Although, perhaps this is an ultraconservative fatwa and shouldn't be taken too seriously.
Question: In what sense are wives "captives" in the hadith "...they are but captives with you..."?
Someone who's familiar with Arabic would have a more accurate idea of what the hadith says than me.
I managed to find a few variations:
... they are but like captives with you ... -- Jami` at-Tirmidh [grade: hasan]
... they are like captives in your hands ... -- Riyad as-Salihin
... you have taken them on the security of Allah ... -- Sahih Muslim 1218 a
These don't really convey the meaning of "physical imprisonment" like in the first version. It sounds more like the wife is dependent on her husband, and thus he should be good to her (as in the first part of the sentence).