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And thus We have made for every prophet an enemy - devils from mankind and jinn, inspiring to one another decorative speech in delusion. But if your Lord had willed, they would not have done it, so leave them and that which they invent. -- Qur'an 6:112 (with other translations at Islam Awakened)

According to this verse, every Prophet has some God-assigned enemy from either mankind or jinn. I'm wondering if we know who Prophet Muhammad's enemy is.

Question: Who is Prophet Muhammad's enemy mentioned in Qur'an 6:112?

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Muhammed Asad, doesn't translate the word to enemy here in singular form, rather in plural, which I think fits in best in the context:

AND THUS it is that against every prophet We have set up as enemies the evil forces from among humans as well as from among invisible beings that whisper unto one another glittering half-truths meant to delude the mind. But they could not do this unless thy Sustainer had so willed: stand, therefore, aloof from them and from all their false imagery

Some other translations of the Quran also uses plural in their translations.


According to Tabari, the enemies here are the mushriks of Quraysh, or at least some of them. It is mentioned that they argued with the Prophet and his followers in order to make them leave islam. In the same surah, some verses away, similar incidents are explained. For instance:

6:121 And do not eat of that upon which the name of Allah has not been mentioned, for indeed, it is grave disobedience. And indeed do the devils inspire their allies [among men] to dispute with you. And if you were to obey them, indeed, you would be associators [of others with Him].

The reason mentioned about this revelation:

قال المشركون : يا محمد أخبرنا عن الشاة إذا ماتت من قتلها ؟ قال الله قتلها " ، قالوا : فتزعم أن ما قتلت أنت وأصحابك حلال ، وما قتل الكلاب والصقر حلال ، وما قتله الله حرام ، فأنزل الله تعالى هذه الآية .

The polytheists said: O Muhammed! Tell us about the sheep, who is the one killing it when it dies? He said: Allah killed it. They said: So you claim that what you and your companions kills, is halal and what dogs and birds kills is halal and (then you claim) that what God kills is haram? Then the verse was reveled by God: "And do not eat of that which the name of Allah has not been mentioned"

References in Arabic from Tabari Tafsir Also found in Asbab Nozol (english translation here)

In next verse 6:122 (quran.com), it is mentioned in some narratives that "Abu Jahal bin Hisham" was meant with the wordings "like one who is in darkness, never to emerge therefrom?":

{ كمَنْ مَثَلُهُ فِي الظُّلُماتِ } قال: أبو جهل بن هشام.
{like one who is in darkness, never to emerge therefrom?} ... he said Abu Jahal bin Hisham

Conclusion
In this context, the enemy was (some of) the mushriks of Quraysh. But just because they are mentioned to be the enemies in this context, doesn't mean that they were the only ones.

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