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O you who have believed, upon you is [responsibility for] yourselves. Those who have gone astray will not harm you when you have been guided. To Allah is your return all together; then He will inform you of what you used to do. -- Qur'an 5:105

I feel I'm misunderstanding the sentence in bold. Several Islamic Prophets seem to have been harmed by those who have gone astray; as a few examples:

Presumably, it's safe to consider that these Prophets were guided, yet harm came to them.

Question: If those who have gone astray will not harm the guided, why were many Prophets harmed?

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Here I think God doesn't speak about the physical harm, instead Allah is referring to a harm of your faith. He is saying that your faith is your responsibility and yours only. The disbelievers will not harm your faith. This is only from the context of the sentence, if you read it in arabic, as there is no punctuation in arabic, so the whole verse should be taken as is. And also when he says "harm you" it's followed by " when you have been guided" so you see that the harm is more to your guidance. The word here translated as harm, can also mean to damage.

you can read more explanation and alternative translation here : http://www.alim.org/library/quran/AlQuran-tafsir/MDD/5/105
and here the definition of the verb translated as harm : https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D8%B6%D8%B1

my last comment, is even if you see translations in English using punctuation please remember that doesn't exist in Arabic so try to understand a whole verse as one sentence.

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