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At one place Islam Q&A (2002) mentions Islam can be forced upon pagans:

The scholars explained that ... they are not to be forced, rather they are to be given the choice between becoming Muslim or paying the jizyah.

Other scholars said that this applied in the beginning, but was subsequently abrogated by Allaah’s command to fight and wage jihad. ... The kuffaar should be compelled to enter Islam if they are not people from whom the jizyah may be taken, because that will lead to their happiness and salvation in this world and in the Hereafter. Obliging a person to adhere to the truth in which is guidance and happiness is better for him than falsehood.

In another place, Islam Q&A (2009) mentions seven conditions for testimony of faith:

  1. knowledge,
  2. certainty,
  3. acceptance and submission,
  4. following that which is indicated,
  5. truthfulness,
  6. sincerity, and
  7. love for this word and for what it implies and indicates.

When a pagan is forced to Islam, he's not satisfying the seven criteria mentioned in immediate above link. Aren't these two verdicts contradictory?

  • Please note that the website you got it from only have their interpretation and according to @Medi1Saif , answers are sometimes contradictory. – Armaan May 19 '17 at 13:24
  • Common they are quoting bin baaz in 34770. And seven conditions of testimony was revived by Muhammad bin Abdul wahhab to the best of my knowledge – Abu AbdulQayyum May 19 '17 at 13:41
  • I think the reason is because the first article: "There is no compulsion to accept Islam " is an answer from a fatwa from Bin Baz: "Majmoo’ Fataawa wa Maqaalaat li’l-Shaykh Ibn Baaz, 6/219"--- While the other answer is answered by Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid – Kilise May 19 '17 at 20:34
  • There is no contradiction, and it is not because these come from different scholars. No-compulsion rule is pre-Islam. Once one accepts Islam, one must fulfill the conditions of the shahada post-Islam. This is analogous to immigrating from one country to another. Pre-oath one is not compelled to have allegiance to this country; but post-immigration, one is compelled to have allegiance to the country, and abide by its laws and constitution. – III-AK-III May 24 '17 at 0:41
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    I give some advice for writing titles here and advice for writing questions here. If you want the readers to read something specific, block quotes > ... can be used to quote directly. I wouldn't expect a typical reader to read an entire webpage. – Rebecca J. Stones May 24 '17 at 12:27
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IslamQA seems to have multiple different people answering queries, who pick rulings according to any one of the different schools of thought and various scholars, often mentioning them solely as the "correct" answer without detailing any difference of opinions. As such there are contradictory verdicts from time to time, and also contradictory verdicts on the various translation sub-sites.

There is a difference of opinion among classical schools of thought on whether polytheist idolaters are to be forced to convert or not.


The criterion is Jizyah.

When there is war with a group, and they are overcome, and they are those from whom Jizyah is prescribed to be taken, then they are not forced to accept Islam but made to pay Jizyah ... this is what is established by Sunnah.

When the subdued are of those from whom Jizyah is not prescribed, then they are given a choice between Islam and death.

Jizyah is taken from Jews and Christians and they can not be forced to convert (9:29 and 2:256). It is also taken from Zoroastrians (magians) based on the sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ (Bukhari, Muwatta Malik).

There is a difference of opinion among the schools of thought on whether Jizyah is to be taken from mushrikeen (polytheist idolaters).

The view of the Shafi and Hanbali schools of thought is that Jizyah is not acceptable from them.

The view of the Maliki school of thought is that Jizyah is accepted from them.

The view of the Hanafi school of thought is is that Jizyah is accepted from them if they are non-Arab, but not if they are Arab.

IslamQA.info:

However, they differed concerning mushrikeen (polytheists) and idol worshippers, and also differed concerning the categories of People of the Book and Zoroastrians from whom jizyah may be accepted.

The majority of Shaafa‘i and Hanbali fuqaha’ are of the view that it cannot be accepted from mushrikeen at all; nothing can be accepted from them except their becoming Muslim or being fought.

The Hanafis and some of the Maalikis said: Jizyah may be accepted from the mushrikeen, except the mushrikeen among the Arabs.

Al-Awzaa‘i – whose view is more likely to be correct according to the Maaliki scholars – said: It may be accepted from all the disbelievers, including the mushrikeen and idol worshippers, whether they are Arabs or non-Arabs, and whether they are Qurashis or non-Qurashis.

This view is more likely to be correct. The evidence for that is the hadith of Buraydah that was narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh (1731) {[ Mentions that Jizyah should be demanded from subdued Mushriqeen ]}

From Tafsir Al Qurtubi on 9:29

وقد ٱختلف العلماء فيمن تؤخذ منه الجزية؛ قال الشافعيّ رحمه الله: لا تقبل الجزية إلا من أهل الكتاب خاصّةً، عرباً كانوا أو عجماً لهذه الآية؛ فإنهم هم الذين خُصّوا بالذكر فتوجّه الحكم إليهم دون من سواهم؛ لقوله عز وجل: { فَٱقْتُلُواْ ٱلْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ } [التوبة: 5]. ولم يقل: حتى يعطوا الجزية كما قال في أهل الكتاب. وقال: وتقبل من المَجُوس بالسُّنّة؛ وبه قال أحمد وأبو ثَوْر. وهو مذهب الثَّوريّ وأبي حنيفة وأصحابه. وقال الأُوْزاعيّ: تؤخذ الجزية من كل عابد وَثَن أو نار أو جاحدٍ أو مكذّب. وكذلك مذهب مالك؛ فإنه رأى أن الجزية تؤخذ من جميع أجناس الشرك والجحد، عربياً أو عجمياً، تَغْلَبيّاً أو قرشياً، كائناً من كان؛ إلا المرتدّ.

There is difference of opinion on whom Jizyah is imposed. Imam Shafi said: Jizyah will not be accepted, except from the People of the Book, whether they are arab or non-arab. This verse (9:29) was presented as evidence, and these are the people who are specifically and seperately mentioned, hence the command is limited to them and to the rest of them, because Allah revealed 9:5 about them and did not mention Jizyah as He did when mentioning the People of the Book.

And Imam Shafi said that Jizyah will be accepted from the Magians and this is proven from the Sunnah. Similar was said by Imam Ahmad and Abu Thawr, and this is the madhab of Thauri, Abu Hanifa and his companions.

Imam Awzai said: idol worshippers, fire-worshippers, rejecters and deniers ... from all of them Jizyah will be accepted. And the same is the madhab of Imam Malik, because in his opinion from every type of shirk and denial, Jizyah is taken, be they Arab, or non-Arab, Tughlabi or Quraysh ... everyone except apostates.

Al-Hidayah fi Sharh Bidayat al-Mubtadi (Hanafi Position) :

Jizyah is imposed on the People of the Book and the Magians ...

And the non-Arab idol worshippers. Al Shafi disagrees with this. He says that fighting them is obligatory due to the words of the Exalted, "And fight them on until there is no more persecution and oppression, and the religion becomes Allah's. But if they cease, let there be no hostility except to those who practice oppression" [ 2:193 ]

We have identified (he says) the permissibly of relinquishing fighting in the case of the People of the Book through the Quran, and in case of the Magians through the tradition, and those who remain besides them are governed by the original rule. We argue that as enslaving them is permitted, therefore imposition of Jizyah is also permitted ...

Jizyah is not imposed on Arab idol worshippers nor on apostates because their unbelief is of an extreme nature. As for the Arab polytheists, the reason is that the Prophet grew up among them and the Quran was sent in their language, therefore the miracle is clearly manifest in their case. The apostate, on the other hand, has denied his Lord, after he was guided to Islam and came to know of its merits.

  • You are missing the crux, the thing is pagans who are forced to Islam cannot understand the 7 conditions of laillalAllahAllah – Abu AbdulQayyum May 24 '17 at 9:45

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