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Muslims could buy/trade slaves that were prisoners of war. But with non-Muslims who may have captured leaves by other means, were they allowed to buy these slaves that were captured as free people but are now slaves.

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The only permitted source for slavery in Islam is non-Muslim prisoners of war.

In Adhwa' Al-Bayan (Arabic: أضواء البيان في إيضاح القرآن بالقرآن) by Muhammad Al-Amin Al-Shanqiti (Arabic: محمد الأمين الشنقيطي) in his tafsir of the verse 17:9 said:

وسبب الملك بالرق : هو الكفر ، ومحاربة الله ورسوله ، فإذا أقدر الله المسلمين المجاهدين الباذلين مهجهم وأموالهم ، وجميع قواهم ، وما أعطاهم الله لتكون كلمة الله هي العليا على الكفار ، جعلهم ملكا لهم بالسبي ; إلا إذا اختار الإمام المن أو الفداء ، لما في ذلك من المصلحة على المسلمين

— NOTE: My own translation, so treat with care:

The reason for ownership is disbelief in Allah (kufr), and fighting against Allah and His Messenger ﷺ. If the Muslim warrirors — who dediate to Allah themselves, their blood, their money, and all their strength, and what Allah gave them to make His word superior — are victorious over the disbelievers, they [prisoners of war] become theirs, unless the Imam elects release for nothing or redemption as the Imam deems best for the interest of the Muslims.

The Prophet ﷺ teaches us that Allah will be the enemy on Judgment Day of anyone who sells a free person as a slave:

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ:‏ قَالَ اللَّهُ

ثَلاَثَةٌ أَنَا خَصْمُهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، رَجُلٌ أَعْطَى بِي ثُمَّ غَدَرَ، وَرَجُلٌ بَاعَ حُرًّا فَأَكَلَ ثَمَنَهُ، وَرَجُلٌ اسْتَأْجَرَ أَجِيرًا فَاسْتَوْفَى مِنْهُ، وَلَمْ يُعْطِ أَجْرَهُ ‏

The Prophet ﷺ said: Allah says:

I will be against three persons on the Day of Resurrection: (1) One who makes a covenant in My Name, but he proves treacherous; (2) One who sells a free person [as a slave] and eats the person's price; (3) And one who employs a laborer and gets the full work done by him but does not pay him his wages.

Sahih Al-Bukhari 34/174

For more information, you may also want to refer to:

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