The hadith you mentioned is fabricated (موضوع) from a Sunni point of view. It can be found in Bahr Al-Domoo' (بحر الدموع) by Ibn Al-Jawzi, Ch. 4, p. 151. Fatwa 8689 by the Permanent Committee declared this hadith as fabricated:
هذا الحديث باطل، قال الحافظ ابن حجر في اللسان: هو من تركيب محمد بن
علي بن العباس البغدادي العطار، زعم أن أبا بكر بن زياد النيسابوري أخذه
عن الربيع عن الشافعي عن مالك عن سمي عن أبي صالح عن أبي هريرة رضي الله
عنه رفعه: (من تهاون بصلاته عاقبه الله بخمس عشرة خصلة... ) الحديث، وهو
ظاهر البطلان من أحاديث الطرقية، وهكذا قال الذهبي في الميزان.
This hadith is fabricated. Ibn Hajar in
It is fabricated by Mohammad ibn 'Ali ibn Al'Abbas Al-Buaghdadi
Al-'Attar, who claimed that Abu Bakr ibn Ziyad Al-Naisaburi took from
Al-Rabi' through Al-Shafe'i through Malik through Sumai through Abi
Salih through Abi Huraira to the Prophet (ﷺ): "Whoever disdains the
prayers will receive fifteen punishments ..." to the end of the
The hadith is obviously fabricated by some of the sufis.
— NOTE: My own translation, so treat with care.
The hadith has two chains of narration other than the one commented about by the Permanent Committee.
The first chain is narrated through Mohammad ibn Mohammad ibn Zaid Al-'Alawi through Al-Hassan ibn Ahmad ibn 'Abdullah Al-Muri' through Al-Hussain ibn Ahmad Al-Mo'allim through Ahmad ibn Ibrahim Al-Fami through Mohammad ibn Ahmad ibn Siddeeq Al-Asbahani through Is'haq ibn Ibrahim through 'Ali ibn Sho'aib through Shuja' ibn Al-Waleed ibn Qays through 'Abdel-Wahid ibn Rashid through his father through Al-Harith through 'Ali ibn Abi Talib through the Prophet (ﷺ). The chain has unknowns and untrustworthy as mentioned by Ismail ibn Mohammad ibn Al-Fadl Al-Asbahani.
The second chain is narrated through 'Umar ibn Ahmad ibn 'Uthman Al-Wa'idh through Abu Al-Fadl Ja'afar ibn Mohammad Al-Sandali through Abu Bakr ibn Zanjuwaih through Mohammad ibn Youssof Al-Feryabi through Sufian Al-Thawri through Zubaid ibn Al-Harith Al-Ayami through 'Aamir Al-Sha'bi through Juhaifa (Wahb ibn 'Abdullah) through 'Ali ibn Abi Talib through the Prophet (ﷺ). This chain has Abu Bakr ibn Zanjuwaih who, while being honest in his narrations, used to mix up his chains. 'Umar ibn Ahmad ibn 'Uthman Al-Wa'idh is also known as Ibn Shaheen, whom Al-Daraqutni said he made mistakes and insisted on them, and Al-Dawoodi and Al-Dhahabi concurred with Al-Daraqutni.