This hadith, as attributed to the Prophet ﷺ is very weak. There is, however, a hassan (good) narration — with similar wording — that is attributed to Mu'adh ibn Jabal in I'lām al-Muwaaqi'īn by Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya and in Al-Mu'jam al-Awsat by At-Tabarani:
وَبِهِ: حَدَّثَنِي اللَّيْثُ قَالَ: قَالَ يَحْيَى بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو حَازِمٍ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ مُرَّةَ، عَنْ مُعَاذِ بْنِ جَبَلٍ، عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: إِيَّاكُمْ وَثَلَاثَةً: زَلَّةَ عَالِمٍ، وَجِدَالَ مُنَافِقٍ، وَدُنْيَا تَقْطَعُ أَعْنَاقَكُمْ. فَأَمَّا زَلَّةُ عَالِمٍ فَإِنِ اهْتَدَى فَلَا تُقَلِّدُوهَ دِينَكُمْ، وَإِنْ زلَّ فَلَا تَقَطَّعُوا عَنْهُ آمَالَكُمْ. وَأَمَّا جِدَالُ مُنَافِقٍ بِالْقُرْآنِ، فَإِنَّ لِلْقُرْآنِ مَنَارًا كَمَنَارِ الطَّرِيقِ، فَمَا عَرَفْتُمْ فَخُذُوهُ، وَمَا أَنْكَرْتُمْ فَرَدُّوهُ إِلَى عَالِمِهِ. وَأَمَّا دُنْيَا تَقْطَعُ أَعْنَاقَكُمُّْ فَمَنْ جَعَلَ اللَّهَ فِي قَلْبِهِ غِنًى فَهُوَ الْغَنِيُّ
— NOTE: My own translation, so treat with care:
Narrated by Mu'āth ibn Jabal that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: "Beware of three: the slip of a scholar, the argumentation of a hypocrite, and this world cutting your throats. As for the slip of the scholar, if he guides, do not blindly copy [saying we do as this scholar does] and if he slips, do not lose hope about him. As for the argumentation of a hypocrite using the Qur'an, the Qur'an has a light that illuminates its road: take what you recognize, and what you deny, ask a scholar [of the Qur'an] about it. As for the world cutting your throats, whoever keeps Allah in his heart will be the rich one.
— Al-Mu'jam al-Awsat, Vol. 8, pp. 307-308, hadith 8715
In the gloss, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya said that:
- The hadith as mawqūf by Mu'ādh (not attributed to the Prophet) has a hassan (good) chain of narration, and was documented by Wakī' in Al-Zohd (#71), Abu Dawūd in Al-Zohd (#193), Abu Na'īm in Hilyat al-Awliyā' (5/97), Ibn Hazm in Al-Ihkām fi Usūl al-Ahkām (6/72-73/180), Ibn 'Abd al-Barr in Jāmi' al-Bayān through Sho'ba (1872), and Al-Lalika'i in Sharh Usūl I'tiqād Ahl as-Sunna wa al-Jamā'a (1/122) through another narration chain.
- The hadith as marfū' (attributed to the Prophet) is not authentic with a very weak narration chain as Ad-Daraqutni said in Al-'Illal Al-Mutanahiya fi Al-Ahadith Al-Wahiya (6/81/992) and through At-Tabarani in Al-Mu'jam al-Kabīr (20/282), Al-Mu'jam al-Awsat (6575), Al-Mu'jam as-Saghīr (1001), and in Al-Fawā'id by Abu al-Qāssim Tammām (10), and Ad-Dailami in Mussannaf al-Firdaws (1/93). Al-Haithami documented it in Majma' az-Zawā'id and said it had a severed chain of narration, in addition to having 'Abdul-Hakam ibn Mansour whose hadith is forsaken.
I have the same (or quite similar) hadith to the one you quoted was mentioned unattributed in Kanz al-'Ummāl, Al-Qawl al-Muharrar, and in Jāmi' al-Ahādīth.