We know that despite declaring a general indemnity, a few individuals of the Mecca were sentenced to death by the Prophet, even if they were found under the veil of Kaba.

My question is:

  1. The source of this "even if they were found under the veil of Kaba." comment.

  2. Who were they?

  3. How many of them were executed?


1 Answer 1


Some hadith sources

  • "On the day of the Conquest of Makkah, the Messenger of Allah [SAW] granted amnesty to the people, except four men and two women. He said: 'Kill them, even if you find them clinging to the covers of Ka'bah.' (They were) 'Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl, 'Abdullah bin Khatal, Miqyas bin Subabah and 'Abdullah bin Sa'd bin Abi As-Sarh. 'Abdullah bin Khatl was caught while he was clinging to the covers of Ka'bah. Sa'eed bin Huraith and 'Ammar bin Yasir both rushed toward him, but Sa'eed, who was the younger of the two, got there before 'Ammar, and he killed him. Miqyas bin Subabah was caught by the people in the marketplace, and they killed him. 'Ikrimah traveled by sea, and he was caught in a storm. The crew of the ship said: 'Turn sincerely toward Allah, for your (false) gods cannot help you at all in this situation.' 'Ikrimah said: 'By Allah, if nothing came to save me at sea except sincerity toward Allah then nothing else will save me on land. O Allah, I promise You that if You save me from this predicament I will go to Muhammad [SAW] and put my hand in his, and I am sure that I will find him generous and forgiving.' So he came, and accepted Islam. 'Abdullah (bin Sa'd) bin Abi Sarh hid in the house of 'Uthman bin 'Affan, and when the Messenger of Allah [SAW] called the people to give their Oath of Allegiance, he brought him, and made him stand before the Prophet [SAW]. He ('Uthman) said: 'O Messenger of Allah! Accept the allegiance of 'Abdullah.' He raised his head and looked at him three times, refusing his allegiance each time, then he accepted his allegiance after three times. Then he turned to his Companions and said: 'Was there not any sensible man among you who would get up when he saw me refusing to give him my hand and kill him?' They said: 'We did not know, O Messenger of Allah, what was in your heart. Why did you not gesture to us with your eyes?' He said: 'It is not befitting for a Prophet that his eyes be deceitful.' (Sunan an-Nasa-i and other compilations)

  • Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) entered (Makkah) in the year of the Conquest (of Makkah) wearing a helmet over his head. After he took it off, a man came and said, "Ibn Khatal is clinging to the curtains of the Ka'bah." The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "Kill him." (Sahih al-Bukhari and other compilations)

  • On the day of the conquest of Mecca, Abdullah ibn Sa'd ibn Abu Sarh hid himself with Uthman ibn Affan.
    He brought him and made him stand before the Prophet (ﷺ), and said: Accept the allegiance of Abdullah, Messenger of Allah! He raised his head and looked at him three times, refusing him each time, but accepted his allegiance after the third time.
    Then turning to his companions, he said: Was not there a wise man among you who would stand up to him when he saw that I had withheld my hand from accepting his allegiance, and kill him?
    They said: We did not know what you had in your heart, Messenger of Allah! Why did you not give us a signal with your eye?
    He said: It is not advisable for a Prophet to play deceptive tricks with the eyes. (Sunan abi Dawod)

  • The Prophet (ﷺ) said: on the day of the conquest of Mecca: There are four persons whom I shall not give protection in the sacred and non-sacred territory. He then named them. There were two singing girls of al-Maqis; one of them was killed and the other escaped and embraced Islam. (See for example in Sunan abi Dawod, qualified as da'if)

Some sources from historical records

Let's take a look at some historical records:

Safiu Rahaman al-Mubarakpuri صفی الرحمن مبارکپوری in his excellent biography of the prophet () called ar-Raheeq al-Makhtum الرحيق المختوم wrote the following (pages 396-397 of the English translation):

Shedding blood of nine arch-criminals was declared lawful even under the curtains of Al-Ka'bah.
Nevertheless, only four of them were killed while the others were pardoned for different reasons.
As for those who were killed, mention could be made of 'Abdul 'Uzza bin Khatal who had become a Muslim and then deputed to collect alms-tax in the company of a Helper. They had also a slave with them.
'Abdullah, in a fit of rage, killed the Helper's slave on account of a mere trifling dispute, and joined the pagan Arabs as an apostate. He was never repentant at this heinous crime but rather employed two women singers and incited them to sing satirically about the Prophet peace be upon him.
The other man who was put to death was Miqyas bin Sababa. He was a Muslim. A Helper accidently killed his brother Hisham. The Prophet peace be upon him had arranged the payment of blood money to him, which he had accepted. His revengeful nature, however, was never appeased, so he killed the Helper and went to Makkah as an apostate.

Similarly, Huwairith and one woman singer went to death.

On the other hand, every attempt was made to grant pardon to the people. 'Ikrimah bin Abu Jahl, who had attacked Khalid's detachment at the time of the entry into Makkah, was forgiven. To Wahshi, the murderer of Hamzah, the Prophet's uncle, and to Hind, who had chewed his liver, was also extended his generous clemency. The same generous treatment was accorded to Habar who had attacked the Prophet's daughter with a spear, while on her way from Makkah to Madinah, so grievously that she ultimately died of the fatal injuries.

In the same context of magnanimity peculiar to Muhammad peace be upon him, two chiefs of Quraish were pardoned once they had embraced Islam. They were Safwan bin Omaiyah and Fudalah bin 'Umair.
The latter had attempted to assassinate the Prophet peace be upon him while circumambulating in the Holy Sanctuary. The Prophet's matchless tolerance and broad-mindedness instigated by his mission as 'A mercy to all people', converted a terrible hypocrite into a faithful devout believer.

Ibn Ishaaq has reported this also as appears in the English translation introduced by A. Guillaume entitled "The Life of Muhammd" (pages 550-551) quoting them and the reasons they were sentenced to death for:

The apostle had instructed his commanders when they entered Mecca only to fight those who resisted them except a small number who were to be killed even if they were found beneath the curtains of the Ka`ba.
Among them was 'Abdullah b. Sa'd, brother of the B. 'Amir b. Lu'ayy. The reason he ordered him to be killed was that he had been a Muslim and used to write down revelation; then he apostatized and returned to Qurahysh [Mecca] and fled to 'Uthman b. 'Affan whose foster brother he was. The latter hid him until he brought him to the apostle after the situation in Mecca was tranquil, and asked that he might be granted immunity. They allege that the apostle remained silent for a long time till finally he said yes. When 'Uthman had left he said to his companions who were sitting around him, "I kept silent so that one of you might get up and strike off his head!" One of the Ansar said, then why didn't you give me a sign, O apostle of God?" He answered that a prophet does not kill by pointing.

Another was Abdullah Khatal of B. Taym b. Ghalib. He had become a Muslim and the apostle sent him to collect the poor tax in company with one of the Ansar. He had with him a freed slave who served him. (He was Muslim). When they halted he ordered the latter to kill a goat for him and prepare some food, and went to sleep. When he woke up the man had done nothing, so he attacked and killed him and apostatized. He had two singing-girls Fartana and her friend who used to sing satirical songs about the apostle, so he ordered that they should be killed with him.
Another was al-Huwayrith Nuqaydh Wahb Qusayy, one of those who used to insult him in Mecca.
Another was Miqyas Hubaba because he had killed an Ansari who had killed his brother accidentally, and returned to Quraysh as a polytheist.
And Sara, freed slave of one of the Abdul-Muttalib, and Ikrima Abu Jahl. Sara had insulted him in Mecca. As for Ikrima, he fled to the Yaman. His wife Umm Hakim Harith Hisham became a Muslim and asked for immunity for him and the apostle gave it. She went to the Yaman in search of him and brought him to the apostle and he accepted Islam.

As for those who have been killed and who executed them ibn Ishaq has reported (on page 551):

'Abdullah b. Khatal was killed by Sai'd b Hurayth al-Makhzumi and Abu Barza al-Aslami acting together. Miqyas was killed by Numayla b. 'Abdullah, one of his own people. ...
As for Ibn Khatal's two singing girls, one was killed and the other ran away until the apostle, asked for immunity, gave it to her. Similarly Sara who lived until the time of 'Umar a mounted soldier trid her down in the valley of Mecca and killed her. Al-Huwayrith was killed by 'Ali.

Some historian said that the killed slave was called Qareebah while the other was called Fartanah who converted and lived until the times of 'Othman ().

Different historians had different amounts and names some apparently have mixed some names. For example 'Abdullah ibn Sa'ad ibn as-Sarh was referred to as 'Abdullah ibn Sarh in ar-Raheeq al-Makhjtum and referred to as 'Abdullah ibn Sa'd in the English translation of ibn Ishaaq's book which may lead to the idea that they are two different people.

Efforts on listing them

Ibn Hajar picked from different sources and tried to make a list of those who originally were sentenced to death (Source):

  1. 'Abdul 'Uzza ibn Khatal عبد العزى بن خَطَل who has been found clinging on the curtains of al-Ka'abah and killed.
  2. 'Abdullah ibn Sa'd ibn abi Sarh عبد الله بن سعد بن أبي سرح who has been a scribe of revelation before leaving Islam, he was pardoned.
  3. 'Ikrimah ibn abi Jahl عِكرمة بن أبي جهل, fled while his wife converted and asked for an amnesty and he got pardoned and later died as a martyr. As he decided to fight disbelieve in the same manner or more than he fought Islam before his conversion.
  4. Al-Huwayrith ibn Nuqaidh الحويرث بن نُقيذ was killed by 'Ali ibn abi Talib (), he was among those who insulted the Prophet () and his two daughters Fatimah () and Um Kalthoom ().
  5. Miqyas ibn Subabah مقيس بن صَبابة is the second who was killed.
  6. Habnar ibn al-Aswad هبَّار بن الأسود was pardoned.
  7. Two singing slave girls of ibn Khatal some called them: Qareebah -who was killed- and
  8. Fartanah who first fled and then was pardoned and converted to Islam.
  9. Sarah the servant of Bani al-Muttalib سارة مولاة بني المطلب who was also pardoned. She was the carrier of a letter of Hatib ibn Ba'talah to the prophet's () enemies (See also in Did women in Arabian peninsula have "Hijab" before Islam?).
  10. Al-Harith ibn Tultul al-Khoza'i الحارث بن طُلاطل الخزاعي who was killed.
  11. Ka'ab ibn Zuhair كعب بن زهير who was pardoned.
  12. Wahshi ibn Harb وحشي بن حرب the freed slave who killed Hamzah ibn 'Abdalmuttalib () and who was pardoned.
  13. Hind bint 'Utbah هند بنت عتبة the wife of abu Sufyan, who was also pardoned.
  14. Arnab the servant of ibn Khatal أَرْنب مولاة ابن خطل and
  15. Um Sa'ad أم سعد and it is very likely that they are the two singing slave girls as their names, kunyas and surnames have been quoted differently.

While the fatwa from islamweb #188523 provided by @Armaan gives the following list:

  1. 'Abdullaah Ibn Abi Sarh,
  2. 'Abdullaah Ibn Khatal and his two female singers:
  3. Fartanah and
  4. Qareebah,
  5. 'Ikrimah Ibn Abi Jahl,
  6. Huwayrith Ibn Nufayl (or Nuqayth),
  7. Miqyas Ibn Hubaabah,
  8. Habbaar Ibn Al-Aswad,
  9. Ka’b Ibn Zuhayr,
  10. Al-Haarith Ibn Hishaam, (embraced Islam)
  11. Zuhayr Ibn Umayyah, (embraced Islam)
  12. Saarah (a woman slave of some sons of Ibn ‘Abudul Muttalib),
  13. Safwaan Ibn Umayyah, (embraced Islam)
  14. Hind Bint ‘Utbah and
  15. Wahshi Ibn Harb.

adding al-Haarith ibn Hishaam, Zuhayr and Safwaan ibn Umayyah. And leaving out al-Haarith ibn Tultul.

The biographers agreed that only four of them have been executed:

  1. 'Abdul 'Uzza ibn Khatal.
  2. One of his two singing slaves.
  3. Miqyas ibn Subabah.
  4. Al-Haarith ibn Tultul.

Some more sources:

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