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When the Prophet (P.B.U.H) gave his speech on the importance of knowledge:

Acquire knowledge, for surely it leads to fear of Allah. Seeking it is an act of worship ('ibadah); studying it is praising Allah; seeking it is jihad; teaching it to whomever doesn't known it is an act of charity (sadaqah); and giving it to its people draws one closer to them. Knowledge points to the permissible (Halaal) and the forbidden (haraam); and it is a shining light pointing the way to paradise It comforts the lonely, befriends the estranged, and talks to you in seclusion. It is a guide through prosperity and adversity; it is a weapon against enemies; and it is the best of friends. With knowledge, Alláh raises people to high stations, making them leaders in goodness, whose steps are traced. Their example is emulated, their opinion followed. The angels like to sit with the people of knowledge, surrounding their wings; and everything dry or wet, -fish of the sea and animals on land, - will ask Allah to forgive them. Knowledge gives life to the heart in the midst of ignorance, and illumines vision in the darkness. With knowledge, God's servants become the elite and reach the highest degrees in this life and in the hereafter. Contemplation with knowledge is equivalent to fasting (sawm); spending time to study it is equivalent to standing at night in prayer (qiyam); duties to relatives are fulfilled by it; and through it the halaal and haraam are known. Knowledge precedes action ('amal) and action always follows it. The fortunate ones attain it and the miserable ones are deprived of it.

What is meant by knowledge? Is it specifically Islamic knowledge or scientific knowledge? Or does knowledge in this context mean something completely different?

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It is both Islamic knowledge or scientific knowledge. Actually both overlaps each other.

Islamic Knowledge requires some Scientific knowledge to fulfil it. For Example Every Muslim should pray five daily prayers, which require knowing the timings for it.

And establish prayer at the two ends of the day and at the approach of the night. Indeed, good deeds do away with misdeeds. That is a reminder for those who remember. -- Hud 11:114

Establish prayer at the decline of the sun [from its meridian] until the darkness of the night and [also] the Qur'an of dawn. Indeed, the recitation of dawn is ever witnessed. -- 17:78

To calculate it accurately in every season, requires knowledge of the Sunrise, mid-day and Sunset etc., especially during winter months and cloudy days.

On the other hand, knowledge of Islam and Quran is a pathway to scientific knowledge and findings.

For example, [Refer here] There are several scientific miracles quoted in Quran. Like Big Bang Theory.

“Have not those who disbelieved known that the heavens and the earth were one connected entity, then We separated them?...” (Quran 21:30)

Hope this helps you in understanding the context.

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