Islam Q&A write The basic principle is that a woman should remain at home, justifying it via the ayah:
And abide in your houses and do not display yourselves as [was] the display of the former times of ignorance. ...
This seems to be the main text to support this view.
However, these conclusions are counterbalanced by other fatawa. E.g. AboutIslam describes how they didn't even strictly apply to the wives of the Prophet (who the ayah addresses). They go on to list numerous women's roles outside the home in Islamic history (as does IslamWeb):
History records that Muslim women accompanied the Muslim armies in battles to nurse the wounded, prepare supplies, serve the warriors, and so on. Sumayyah was among the first to be martyred in Islam. Muslim women took part in the first and second Pledges of Allegiance. Furthermore, we read in Islamic history that the female companions used to go around doing their business in the city.
The following fatwa describes staying at home as one of the rights of a woman:
The right that Islam has given to a wife is to stay at home and fulfill her role as a wife and as a mother. No one can (should) take away this right from her, the husband cannot demand, request or force her to work.
Darul Uloom Trinidad & Tobago