This question has ever been asked but i'm asking it again because:

  1. The answers given are not concrete
  2. Closed (as primarily opinion based)
  3. Closed (as too broad)

The questions are as follows:

First is there any unambiguous source from Quran and/or Hadith which clearly mentions that Woman should cover their hair ?

Second, Now if it is not clear, what are the main sources (e.g. Quran Verse or Hadiths) that were interpreted, if possible for the different madhabs ?

Third, how the interpretations has lead to conclusion that Hijab is obligatory, clearly, the interpretations has been performed by different madhabs and in each madhabs, there was a logical entailment from the sources that Hijab is obligatory, in short what was the usool used for deriving this obligation, if possible for each madhabs ?

NB: In no way, I am contesting the principle of Hijab, I am instead pro this practice, and sure that the great mujtahids have put forward such a practice as fard/wajib, then it must be important, i'm only wishing to see the evidence behind or the way they derived the ruling

Jazak Allah

  • 1
    Hijab is considered as obligatory by Quran, sunnah and Ijma' by all scholars! The clearest evidence is of course from sunnah as it describes exactly what a woman can show off or not and there's no difference about that in general.
    – Medi1Saif
    Mar 21, 2017 at 8:57
  • thanks @Medi1Saif, can you provide us with the evidence from the sunna, as I mentioned in the question, unambiguous evidence which clearly says hair must be covered
    – Noor
    Mar 21, 2017 at 11:49
  • 1
    This was asked here (closed as primarily opinion-based), here (closed as unclear what you're asking) and here (closed as too broad). Odd; it seems like a perfectly fine Islam-related question to me. Mar 22, 2017 at 11:33
  • 1
    Regarding Qur'an 24:31 you need to know that the women at the time of revelation of this ayah used to cover their hair already, but in a way which exposed their chest and part of the neck. Therefore, Allah swt ordered them to pull the head cover over their chests. Hence you do not find the command to cover the hair as the women were already doing so.
    – Noor
    Apr 11, 2017 at 20:44
  • 1
    Do you have a authentic authoritative reference where it mentions that woman were already doing so ?
    – Noor
    Apr 12, 2017 at 11:36

1 Answer 1


The verse of the Quran that is used to derive the rulings of hijab is 24:31

Quran 24:31 And tell the believing women to .... not expose their adornment except that which [necessarily] appears thereof and to wrap [a portion of] their headcovers over their chests and not expose their adornment except to ....

Similarly 33:59

Quran 33:59 O Prophet, tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to bring down over themselves [part] of their outer garments ...

What is clear from the Quran in a literal sense is that:

  1. A cloak must be used to cover the chest and neck.
  2. Adornments should be covered in front of strangers. Except those adornments which are to be visible.

Hadith are used to determine which adornments are permissible to expose, and there is disagreement among the scholars on these. The strictest claim that nothing must be visible except cloth itself, while most others claim that the face, hands and feet may be exposed since there are direct hadith to that effect as well as narrations that imply that these parts were left bare.

Below is my translation of Tafsir Al-Qurtubi on 24:31

Third: Allah commanded the women that they should not make their adornments visible to on-lookers, except those that are exempted. People differ regarding this. Ibn Masud said "Apparent adornments means clothes". Ibn Jabir added that it also includes the face. Saeed Bin Jabir, Ata, Al-Oazaee said that it includes the face, hands and clothes. Ibn Abbas, Qatadah, Masur bin Mukhurmah said: Apparent adornments means kohl(eye-liner), bracelets, colouring till the mid of the arms, earings and rings. It is permissible for her to make these visible to anyone who comes to her.

Tibri related from Qatadah regarding the meaning of mid-arms, and a second hadith narrated from Ayesha that the Prophet said: "The woman who believes in Allah and the last Day, when she reaches puberty, it is not permitted for her to make visible anything except her face and arms till here(he pointed to the middle of his arms)".

Ibn Atia said: "My understanding is that the verse commands that women should hide their adornments, and should try to hide every adornment. That on which concession has been granted to expose is regarding when it is necessary and where there is no alternative but to uncover them.

I said, this is a good saying, but in habit and worship, face and hands are exposed, such as in Prayer and Pilgrimage when they are to be visible, then the better opinion is that a concession applies to them both. The evidence on it is that of Abu Daud that Ayesha narrated that when Asma bint Abi Bakr came to the Prophet wearing thin clothes, the Prophet turned his face and said: "O Asma. When a woman reaches puberty, it is not right for her to be seen except this part" And the Prophet pointed to his face and hands. " This is the more correct stance and is less likely to be disputed by the people ... hence women should not reveal their adornments except what is apparent in the face and hands. Ibn Khuazir who is from our scholars has said: "If a woman is beautiful fears that exposing her face and hands will spread seduction, then she should cover them. If she is old or not beautiful then she can uncover her face and hands.

Fourth: Adornments are of two types, the created ones and the acquired ones. The created ones include the face, it is the origin of adornment and beauty ... the acquired ones are those the women use to improve their appearance such as clothes, ornaments, kohl and cosmetics. Allah has said: "Take your adornments"[Quran 7:31]

Fifth. Adornments are apparent and hidden. Regarding the apparent ones, it is permissible to show them to both mahrams and strangers. I have already related the views about them among the scholars. The adornments that are to be hidden, showing them is not permitted except to those who are mentioned by Allah in this verse. There is a dispute about bracelets. Ayesha has said that it is an apparent adornment since it is on the hands. Mujahid has said that it is to be hidden because it is separate from the palms and is on the arms. Ibn Arbi has said that pigment is a hidden adornment when it is on the feet.

  • 1
    Do you have an idea which verse was revealed first, 24:31 or 33:59?
    – Kilise
    Apr 22, 2017 at 23:40

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