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Yes, I know that non-muslims can't enter Mecca and Medina (in theory). But it is on the current state law of Saudi Arabia.

What says the Sharia about this?

Could a Christian enter these cities, and pray with the Muslims together, on the Sharia law, while he still remains a Christian?

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Non-muslims are not allowed in the sanctuary of the Sacred Mosque in Mecca based on the following verse:

Quran 9:28 O you who have believed, indeed the polytheists are unclean, so let them not approach al-Masjid al-Haram after this, their [final] year. And if you fear privation, Allah will enrich you from His bounty if He wills. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Wise.

The scholars of Shariah are all agreed upon this, though the Hanafis interpret that they may be allowed entry in certain conditions, though all agree that they can not be allowed open entry, or to perform the pilgrimage according to their own rites and beliefs (IslamQA, Hidayah) .

Non-muslims are allowed entry into Medinah, and they may visit other mosques based on the actions of the Prophet and the Caliphs as detailed in the above sources.

Related answer: https://islam.stackexchange.com/a/30307/20218

  • All scholars allow them to enter Mekka under certain conditions I've answered a simular question with quotes of the madhabs. – Medi1Saif Mar 18 '17 at 8:07
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    @Medi1Saif My impression is that the Hanafis are more lenient with respect to the actual Sacred Mosque itself. I'll link to the post which I think you are referring to, if I choose the wrong one please feel free to edit in the right link. – UmH Mar 18 '17 at 8:16

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