What is Kalam according to Islam? I have already checked the Wikipedia entry about it but it is still vague to me. Please explain this concept with examples.
'Ilm al-kalam as one of the Islamic sciences, discusses the fundamental Islamic beliefs (Allah is One, Prophethood etc.) and doctrines which are necessary for a Muslim to believe in. It explains them, argues about them, and defends them.
Ilm al-kalam is the study of Islamic doctrines and beliefs. In the past, it was also called "usul al-Din" or "'Ilm al-tawhid wa al-sifat".
Divine Justice, predestination, free will, Prophet hood, Divine Attributes are some subjects of Kalam. Islamic Philosophy and Kalam are very much intertwined.
The linked article gives an overview about Ilm al-kalam, its history and development mainly from a Shia perspective, but explains the view of other schools of thought as well.
Kalam or ilm al Kalam is a branch of theology also called sochalatism.in initial era it called different names like: Ilm al Aqaidah ILM AL Usool al Din Ilm al Tawhid w sifath. Its origin traced from Quranic verses like Tadabur and Tafakur, bkz on these Ahyas one Mutakalum discourse and discuss. It also traced from Sahabas wen they discussed each other on several islamic beliefs but they much emphasis on Naql not Aql Now we can say it means theoritical consideratios of matters of religious creed. Its the disipline comprise of disputations over creedal beliefs with rational proof. Short it means discourse and discussion on Aqaid and beliefs through rationalistic point of view and through intellect defend islamic beliefs and practices. Its founder was Hassan Basari in 92 hijri in Basrah. Its progress was given by Qadarites and Jabarites. Mutazilate also support it fully.its foundation laid by wadil bin Attah. They discussion on Revelation,Angels,day of judgment and Attributes (sifaths) of Allah like Yad ul Allah, sumas tawa al Arish,miracles and Accension (Miraj). Hope the answer of question