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https://sunnah.com/abudawud/1/66 Narrated AbuSa'id al-Khudri: The people asked the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ): Can we perform ablution out of the well of Buda'ah, which is a well into which menstrual clothes, dead dogs and stinking things were thrown? He replied: Water is pure and is not defiled by anything. (Sahih by Al-Albani)

Also

https://sunnah.com/abudawud/1/67

Reading this it does not seem right that the water is pure?

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All perfect praise be to Allah

As a general rule about water, as explained in other answers on this site, it is well known that water is considered pure until or unless some impurity alters its color/taste or smell.

And about this well, scholars have explained that this well was not actually USED for such things, but the rain water or accidently these things usually used to fell into it, and this well was large enough that its water didn't changed its smell taste or color with those things. So, it remained useful for ablution.

We cannot imagine an unbeliever, even a pagan, doing such a thing, never mind a Muslim. It has been the custom of people throughout time, regardless of their religion, to respect water and protect it from filth. How could we think otherwise of the people of that generation, who were the best of Muslims to ever live? This is not in conforming to what we know of their character. The truth is that the well was situated in sloping ground. When the rains came, these impure substances would be carried from the roadways and the yards of people's houses and dropped into the well. However, due to the considerable amount of the water in the well, the quality of the water was never affected or altered. [Ma`âlim al-Sunan (1/37)]

For details read here.

Allah knows best

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