Note: Maybe my question is too broad, but I hope for constructive comments to focus it more, but as I'm not aware of any "known" books of female scholars I'll keep it somehow open for the first draft! If a focus is needed we could stick on hadith sciences!
In a post I've read here somebody even claimed that except for 'Aisha or one or two other women no female has ever narrated hadith. This is simply wrong, ibn Hajar quoted a long list of 824 female hadith narrators in his books like taqreeb at-Tahdib تقريب التهذيب until the beginning of the 3rd hijri century!
The well known hadith scholar ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani ابن حجر العسقلاني was married to the female hadith scholar Anas Khatun أنس خاتون, both of them were students of al-Hafidh al-'Iraqi الحافظ العراقي and got their Ijazah from him as far as I can tell. And Anas Khatun was teaching hadith in her house.
I've also heard that a female scholar used to teach in Damascus at the time of the Omayyad Caliph (king) Abdul Malik ibn Marwan and he was attending these courses behind a "hijab". As this was rather a female course.
Beside this the people of Yemen had conserved for a long time (as it is said) the narration of al-Muwatta' transmitted by Imam Malik's daughter Fatima.
So my question is do we have any books or "literary remains" of female scholars. I mean we have some literary remains of female poets, why does it seems as if Islam is a rather male dominant religion?
On Islam Online there must have been an Article posted on Spetember 13th 2001 by Mustapha 'Ashour الحركة العلمية النسائية تراث غابت شمسه which was reposted here.
This article includes the statement of 824 female hadith narrators whom were quoted by ibn Hajar from above. Beside some women whom gave fatwa and what I found astonishing the grand daughter of al-'Izz ibn Abdassalam العز بن عبدالسلام Zaynab bint Yahya ibn al-'izz ibn 'Abdassalam زينب بنت يحيى بن العز بن عبدالسلام (died 735 a.H.) whom was the lonely person at her time to have a continuous chain of al-Mu'ajm as-Saghir المعجم الصغير of at-Tabarani! Imam a-Dhahabi said that the day she died she still have been listening to the recitation of her students for many ajza' (parts).
Ibn Hazm was educated by women he said:
"ربيت في حجر النساء، ونشأت بين أيديهن، ولم أعرف غيرهن ولا جالست الرجال إلا وأنا في حد الشباب.. وهن علمنني القرآن، وروينني كثيرًا من الأشعار، ودربنني في الخط"
I've been educated by women, and grown up in front (beside) of them, and I didn't know any other and never met or consulted men until I was a young man (about 30)... it was them who taught me the Quran, and narrated me (or made me) many of the poetry and trained me in calligraphy