I found that mushaf in my country is different in style of writing to that which come from Makkah. Probably most of the (old) mushafs in my country use Indopak style. However the religious council said that it is Uthmani.

Here is the example of mushaf from Makkah (I add tatweel into "lillah" word so it will not be rendered by using unicode arabic ligature لله):

ٱلْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ رَبِّ ٱلْعَٰلَمِينَ

  • Alef-lams use alef wasla
  • "Lillah" word uses fatha above shadda
  • Both fatha and superscript alef is added to ain

Here is the example of mushaf in my country (I also add tatweel into "lillah" word):

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰـهِ رَبِّ الْعٰلَمِينَ

  • Alef-lams use normal alef (and also fatha if it is at first word)
  • "Lillah" word uses superscript alef above shadda
  • Only superscript alef is added to ain

My questions are:

  1. Are both of them considered as rasm Uthmani?
  2. If both are Uthmani, is there any term to call this difference?
  3. How many style that exist in the world? E.g. standard madani, indopak, etc (I don't know).

My question is not about the difference in qiraat like this question, but about the style of writing.


More example of difference:

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ ٱلْقُرْءَانَ

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ

اَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُوْنَ الْقُرْاٰنَ

  • The rasm al-'Othmany isn't a writing style and has no relation to your posted examples.
    – Medi1Saif
    Commented Feb 5, 2017 at 16:01

2 Answers 2


What you are showing or asking about isn't the rasm al-'Othmany it is the style or artistic license of the person whom wrote or made the calligraphy in a special moshaf (Hardcover book including the Quranic text) copy.

Now the rasm al-'Othmany refers to the way the sahaba have written the quranic text in the time of 'Othman (as he insisted in case of dispute to use the words or language of Quraish). The following picture is a copy of a very old Quran so it must be very close to this scriptur on the left hand side you may find the beginning of surah Taha (20) (under the "zigzag line"), so this picture shows the beginning of Taha (20) and the end of surat Mariam (19) as it was written in the 1st maybe even 2nd Century of Islam scholars such as Imam Malik refused any change to this rasm, but not much people would be able to read this now even if they are fairly or even well-versed in Arabic language.
enter image description here

The following picture shows the left site of the former image or a similar copy:
enter image description here

This is covers under the zigzag line the verses 1-13 until the words:

وأنا اخترتك - And I have chosen you,

Finally the Quran copy of the Topkapi Place in Istanbul which is said to be one of the copies made at the time of 'Othman:
enter image description here

(Source of the images)

Note that لِلّٰـهِ and لِلَّـهِ only differ in the style of setting the diacritic on لـله (lillah) maybe the author of the first version only wanted to set the diacritic "fatha" in a vertical position instead of the usual horizontal position, indicating that the letter "l" (ل) or "laam" (اللام) here is pronounced in a prolonged style as if there was a letter "alif" (ألف) afterwards (so it is pronounced like laa with an extra "a" "ا").

The rasm al-'Othmany of this verse should rather look like this: enter image description here

About the new example

The words you posted appear at the beginning of two verses of the Quran (4:82)and (47:24).

Here a picture of an old copy of verse (4:82) and the copy on legacy.quran.com which shows your first example (I've separately exacted the words you asked about and put them side by side with the old scripture letters: enter image description here

You may recognize that there are no "points" on some letters, some letters look very similar in the old copy, but they are different, and there's no appearance of the letter hamzah (ء) in it that's why a valid recitation (I think of ibn Kathir) doesn't pronounce it reading it al-quraan instead of al-qur'aan.

The other two examples can be explained similarly as above.

To answer your questions:

  • Are both of them considered as rasm Uthmani?

strictly speaking no, but they follow that rasm!

  • If both are Uthmani, is there any term to call this difference?

as said artistic license or artwork of the calligrapher!

  • How many style that exist in the world? E.g. standard madani, indopak, etc (I don't know).

The rasm al-'Othmany is rather unique, when it comes to handwriting styles and calligraphy then I'd say as much as there are Arabic calligraphy styles!

  • I don't know if I should update my question, but I found more difference: "القرآن" vs "القرءان". Are both of them also considered "following" othmani?
    – fikr4n
    Commented Feb 15, 2017 at 23:57
  • @BornToCode I'll try to post some pictures that might explain more. Also take a look at this post islam.stackexchange.com/questions/4130/… which shows some different writing styles. which go ahead with the ram al-'Othmany
    – Medi1Saif
    Commented Feb 17, 2017 at 9:04

The letter HAMZAH was absent in the MusHAf of Uthman (RadiyAllahu `anh). So, HAMZAH is never part of Rasm-al-Uthman.


  • To know more, you may go through the books on "Ulumul Quran" or "Science of Quran" by Taqi Usmani, Yasir Qadhi etc. These books are free to download in the internet.
    – Mizan
    Commented Apr 11, 2019 at 6:51

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