Yes there are halal foods and haram foods. Halal foods are worthy of being eaten while it is forbidden to eat haram foods and so they are unworthy of being eaten.
وكلوا مما رزقكم الله حلالا طيبا
And eat of what Allah has provided for you [which is] lawful and good.
— Quran 5:88
ويحل لهم الطيبات ويحرم عليهم الخبائث
Makes lawful for them good things, and makes unlawful for them impure things
— Quran 7:157
There are various things that Muslims are forbidden to eat and drink, such as:
حرمت عليكم الميتة والدم ولحم الخنزير وما أهل لغير الله به
Prohibited to you are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah
— Quran 5:3
ميتة أو دما مسفوحا أو لحم خنزير فإنه رجس
a dead animal or blood spilled out or the flesh of swine - for indeed, it is impure
— Quran 6:145 Also see Quran 2:173
ولا تأكلوا مما لم يذكر اسم الله عليه
And do not eat of that upon which the name of Allah has not been mentioned
— Quran 6:121
يا أيها الذين آمنوا إنما الخمر والميسر والأنصاب والأزلام رجس من عمل الشيطان فاجتنبوه لعلكم تفلحون
O you who believe! Wine, gambling, altars and divining arrows are filth, made up by Satan. Therefore, refrain from it, so that you may be successful.
— Quran 5:90 Also see Quran 2:219
Haram foods have been called خبائث and رجس (impure, evil, filthy, abhorent) and the act of eating haram foods has been called or implied to be فسق , بَاغٍ , إثم , عَادٍ (grave disobedience, transgression and sin).