Is it sin to listen to quran recitation on phone in bathroom and toilet? I know it is makrooh (disliked) but is it forbidden in Quran or Hadith? Can you show with evidence?
It is (probably) forbidden.
You can listen to recitation while in the bathroom but you should not recite while in the bathroom.
According to source 1 and source 2, the speaker or "radio" must be outside of the bathroom, but it is permissible for listeners to hear it from inside the bathroom. Based on that I think we can extrapolate and say that the sound source should not originate from inside of the bathroom, which would rule out radios, phones, mp3 players, etc, unless they are placed outside of the bathroom in speaker mode such that you can hear it inside with your ears (not headphones).
That being said, I think this may require further clarification. What if someone is reciting outside of the bathroom, but someone inside the bathroom is wearing a hearing aid? I'd like to think the hearing aid would be allowed, but if so that isn't much different than a loudspeaker or radio inside of the bathroom, and the latter seems to not be allowed.