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It seems to me that there is no country with a muslim majority where Islam is not used for political reasons. All of them have at least a few laws forbidding sex before / out of marriage, alcohol, leaving Islam, or a muslim woman marrying a non muslim. Why is the state watching over this behaviour, and why is it not left to the people themselves to behave?

It seems to me that forbidding something by fines or jail time leads to a lot of hypocrisy. Not only from the people, but from the rulers too, and even more so since they can use islam for their own material gain. Is there any part of the quran (or hadiths, but I would rather have a quran verse) that says the state has to do this?

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It's important to recognize here that there were two major periods in Muhammad's ministry:

  • The Makkan period, where Muslims lived under non-Muslim rule
  • The Madinan period, where Muhammad had the power to impose Muslim rule

Much of the Mekkan period was as you describe, where the state did nothing to watch over Muslim behavior (not insofar as ensuring it was actually in accordance to Islam was concerned, at least). Most of the Mekkan verses in the Qur'an emphasise building faith and patience, rather than strict enforcement of laws. Muhammad's own role during this period was mostly as a spiritual leader rather than a political one.

During the Madinan period, on the other hand, Muhammad himself did have a clear political role as the leader of Madinah, and there are many examples in the hadith literature where he used this power to either enforce Islamic behaviour or to control non-Islamic influences.

As Muslims, following the example set by Muhammad is generally considered a blessed action: Given that Muhammad himself was a political leader, and there are countless examples of how he behaved as a political leader, contemporary Muslims who choose to follow his political example are definitely justified in that regard.

This doesn't mean that the way you see it implemented in the Muslim-majority countries today is the only (or even the best) way to do so: There are whole schools of fiqh that have, for centuries, tried to figure out what is and is not part of "Islamic Law", and there are many aspects that they do not agree on.

However, ignoring the political aspects of Islam while attempting to follow the spiritual aspects thereof is dismissing a good half of the prophet's example. Even if you're not living in a Muslim state or have any ability to influence one, the political aspects of Islam are just as much part of Islam as the spiritual ones are.

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Does Islam have to be political?

Islam has both political and spiritual aspects. Whether Islam gets political or not is decided by Muslims themselves. Islam in some parts of the world is less political (e.g. Europe, Russia) and in some other, highly political (e.g. Middle East, Pakistan).

It seems to me that there is no country with a muslim majority where Islam is not used for political reasons. All of them have at least a few laws forbidding sex before / out of marriage, alcohol, leaving Islam, or a muslim woman marrying a non muslim. Why is the state watching over this behaviour, and why is it not left to the people themselves to behave?

Most of these countries are democracies where people vote to decide who they will vote for. So, your assumption that people have no say in those decisions in not true. Various surveys (e.g. Pew) have shown that a significant portion of Muslims support those laws and restrictions.

It seems to me that forbidding something by fines or jail time leads to a lot of hypocrisy. Not only from the people, but from the rulers too, and even more so since they can use islam for their own material gain. Is there any part of the quran (or hadiths, but I would rather have a quran verse) that says the state has to do this?

The Quran has verses that talks about how people should govern themselves. The Quran says that the prophet is not in charge of the affairs of Muslims.

Sahih International: But your people have denied it while it is the truth. Say, "I am not over you a manager."

Yusuf Ali: But thy people reject this, though it is the truth. Say: "Not mine is the responsibility for arranging your affairs;

Shakir: And your people call it a lie and it is the very truth. Say: I am not placed in charge of you. (6:66)

So, it's upto Muslims to decide what type of laws they will follow which is prescribes in the following verse.

Sahih International: And those who have responded to their lord and established prayer and whose affair is [determined by] consultation among themselves, and from what We have provided them, they spend.

Yusuf Ali: Those who hearken to their Lord, and establish regular Prayer; who (conduct) their affairs by mutual Consultation; who spend out of what We bestow on them for Sustenance;

Shakir: And those who respond to their Lord and keep up prayer, and their rule is to take counsel among themselves, and who spend out of what We have given them. (42:38)

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