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I can't stop thinking about that question since i first has been asked it from an atheist.

I am a Muslim and I believe none has a 100% belief in Allah s.w.t even me, and that is because the logical questions that come to our minds from time to time. Then I decided to try atheists' questions, and see their answers or try to answer it in order to clear all these questions to me to reach 100% certainty in Allah.

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Bismillah.

As salam mu alaikoom.

My Brother/ sister first and foremost it seems that you do not understand the concept of the Qadr of Allah properly.

Qadr (fate/ the divine will and decree) is The knowledge of Allah swt in regards to what Happens, what will, what Has, what could have, etc. – all good and bad is given by Allah.

However, as people who adhere to the Qur'an and Sunnah we do not take extremes we take the middle way -- We do not claim that we do not have "free choice*" at all or that we have entirely "free choice" but rather Allah (swt) as he is Al -Aleem has predicted everything that we will do.

And Allah (swt) is always correct about his prediction but this however, does not negate the fact that we have "free choice"

Imagine if my teacher tells me "you will fail your exam" The next day I do fail my exam. Is it right for me to say "Teacher it is your fault that I failed". No it is not. Why? This is because the teacher knows my capabilities and how you progress and according to their knowledge they predict what will happen.

"Does He who created not know, while He is the Subtle, the Acquainted?"
[Surah Mulk - 67:14]

So if Allah swt is Al Aleem (Omniscient) and Al Hakeem (The Wise) then of course Allah swt would know your capabilities and therefore Allah knows you will make mistakes and if Allah wills Allah will punish you accordingly.

But Allah swt doesn't want to punish us... we were not created to be punished surely is Al Wadud (The Most Loving) and Allah swt ould not create us to punish us...

But rather...

"Say, "O My servants who have transgressed against themselves [by sinning], do not despair of the mercy of Allah . Indeed, Allah forgives all sins. Indeed, it is He who is the Forgiving, the Merciful." " [Qur'an 39:53]

Also

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “I swear by Him in whose hand is my soul, if you were a people who did not commit sin, Allah would take you away and replace you with a people who would sin and then seek Allah’s forgiveness so He could forgive them.” [Sahīh Muslim (2687)]

Someone committed a sin and then said: “O Allah! Forgive me my sin.”

Allah said: “My servant committed a sin, but knew that he has a Lord who forgives sins and punishes sins.”

Then he committed the sin again and said: “My Lord! Forgive me my sin.”

Allah said: “My servant committed a sin, but knew that he has a Lord who forgives sins and punishes sins.”

Then he committed the sin again and said: “My Lord! Forgive me my sin.”

Allah said: “My servant committed a sin, but knew that he has a Lord who forgives sins and punishes sins. Do as you will, for I have forgiven you.” [Sahīh al-Bukhārī (7507) and Sahīh Muslim (2758)]

Also, the reason as to why we are created is not that Allah wants to test us.

"[He] who created death and life to test you [as to] which of you is best in deed - and He is the Exalted in Might, the Forgiving"

"And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me" Qur'an 51:56

So to recap: Although Allah swt has predicted that we will transgress against him by sinning this does not negate our free choice. Also Allah swt has not created us to punish us but rather to test us. If we sin or do good that is because of ourselves not just because of the Qadr of Allah.

Also I kept mentioning free choice instead of free will. My brother/ sister it is not free will because i cannot will for it to rain can I? No. Therefore we only have free choices because we can either choose to do x or y - sin or do good. Also, if you think about it, if everyone had "free will" no one would have free will at all - this is because if I had free will and I can control your mind but then you can also control mine - it's like ?! it doesn't work.

In reality, the only being with Free will is Allah swt and Allah says "...Be and it is" in the Qur'an

salaam. Hope it helped insha' allah I do philosophy my brother/sister so if you have any more questions insha' allah I can answer them (OF COURSE, with both philosophy and Islam)

Also, know that it is wajib to believe in Qadr. see Hadith Jibreel in regards to what is Iman.

  • Salaam! You've provided a good deal of argument to support how Allah's advance knowledge of our deeds doesn't negate our free-will but unfortunately this does not even begin to answer the question raised by the questioner! The questioner is not proposing that God's knowledge undermines our free-will but rather the machine-like operation of our brain! That is, if we are robots whose actions are determined from a sort of command and control center that the brain is perceived to be, then we are slaves to our brains and have no free-will! – infatuated Dec 15 '16 at 3:23
  • As I you see in my own answer this argument can only be refuted by an understanding of human consciousness that elevates it above the the natural body, making the brain subservient to our consciousness not visa versa! – infatuated Dec 15 '16 at 3:25
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    You say Allah is always correct in his predictions. So in your example there was no option for the pupil to not fail the test. Then where did he have the ability to choose? In the case of Allah he is the one that made not only the test but also the pupil and everything that influenced the pupil so that he could not pass the test. Where is the free choice? How can the pupil be punished when it was already set in stone that he would fail? When he wasn't given the abilities required to pass? Also "free will" is usally understood as being able to make a choice - not to have supernatural powers. – The Raven Queen Mar 27 '17 at 15:00
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This argument presumes that our mind is the brain, but this is an assumption that has been contested since much earlier in history by the arguments of Neoplatonic and, later, Muslim philosophers. According to this perspective, our free-will is based on our ability to tell right from wrong by the virtue of our thinking mind which is of a different nature than the material brain (and any other material entity) despite closely interacting with the brain for its functioning in the natural world.

  • Comments appreciated for downvotes. – infatuated Dec 14 '16 at 8:05
  • As far as I know, the mind-body problem is open, with neuroscience leaning in the direction of the mind being purely physically generated. At least a summary of the claims philosophers make towards a suggested solution would be necessary here. – G. Bach Dec 15 '16 at 10:09
  • @G.Bach, For the purposes of this question only rejecting the evidence of mind=brain thesis is sufficient given that it's a controversial and disputed theory. But since the contrary view in the answer is also controversial I edited the post to be read as an statement of a viewpoint rather than an assertion of non-controversial truth, for I can only suffice to argue that the basic premise of the question is debatable and hence the Theological problem based on it. – infatuated Dec 15 '16 at 20:32
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This argument, like many others of this kind, comes from the Christian world. It is also quite old.

It may have appeared among the cathars. In the 12th century in south western France, the cathars said that everyone would go to heaven. It is not clear whether they had this argument or not, though, since the pope launched a crusade against them and they all died (I am happy to live in this century).

When the reform appeared, some protestants (calvinists I think ) used this argument to say that god knew before our birth whether we would go to heaven or not.

Then, atheists came along...

Christians usually answer this by saying that god lets us have free will. This is where the true underlying question appear. Are our thoughs determined only by our experience, or are they also appearing out of nowhere (in which case we have free will) ? In the first case, the atheist is right. Which leaves us with the second case.

If some thoughs appear out of nowhere, god knows when they will appear, what they will be, and what effect they will have on you. They are just like an experience, they come up and influence your other thoughts. So god judging you means he is judging thoughts he knew about before you were born and other stuff he knew about before you were born. So the atheist is right.

Unless you are willing to admit that god is not omnipotent and omniscient. In that case, the atheist is right again.

As you can see, there is no way to win a rational argument against an atheist. It is their realm. I am sure he has many other rational arguments just as undeniable for you.

  • Yes, i think you are right for now but because i believe in Allah s,w,t is certainly fair , i will research in that Muslims' belief that says Allah s,w,t has written all what we will do ( as expectation ) maybe i will find where we missed and even if i didn't find anything then we don't have enough knowledge to answer that question. Thanks for your answer, it clarified something to me. – user20370 Dec 13 '16 at 23:39
  • Oh, and I forgot one possibility. You can also tell him that we all going to heaven, in which case he wins and the cathars cheer you – user5751924 Dec 14 '16 at 8:36
  • This much is beyond debate that "our thoughts are determined only by experience" is patently false! However much the scientists and scienticists want to lag behind, world philosophy has already moved beyond this narrow positivist epistemological perspective for decades if only for the simple example that 2+2=4 doesn't originate and is not similarly verifiable by any appeal to sense experience! – infatuated Dec 15 '16 at 20:41
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    @infatuated, this has nothing to do with doll positivism. Hence the second case. But idealists only take the problem back one step. If thoughts come from a transcendant world, then, god being also omniscient and omnipotent in this world, the same contradiction would occur. – user5751924 Dec 15 '16 at 20:57
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    @user5751924 As for the problem with Divine omniscient I already referred you to henna_'s answer. As for omnipotence, the contradiction is resolved by viewing man's free-will itself as a mechanism by which Allah exercises His power but without forcing man into things not chosen by his God-enabled power and understanding. So you don't have to prove Divine omnipotence by negating man's freedom but rather by postulating his freedom as part of Divine destination itself. – infatuated Dec 21 '16 at 17:22
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I'd say if we didn't have freewill then heaven and hell would be for no reason. If we didn't have heaven/hell then this world would be an unjust world.

Ultimately this question is a question of conscience. Look into yourself, do you truly think you are not free. I doubt that. I know if one thinks too much of it, it becomes complicated. But believe that won't get you anywhere.

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Subconscious mind gives us many options and then we choice from its we don't create decision but choice from available options .this is our Destiny sir ;Do am i wrong ? "you will not wills unless its Allah's will "

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