We know that many prophets performed miracles and many people didn't believe these prophets because they thought it was all magic. But will Allah punish these people? Why would Allah punish them in the afterlife? In the Quran, Allah says that he will not charge a soul beyond it's capability. So if a person is not capable of distinguishing between miracle and magic, why should Allah punish him? It just means that Allah needs to show a stronger sign.
It is commonly quoted in the Quran that disbelievers called many of the miracles of the prophets magic. To mention some of the verses:
So when there came to them (Pharaoh and his people) the truth from Us, they said, "Indeed, this is obvious magic." (10:76)
And [even] if We opened to them a gate from the heaven and they continued therein to ascend, They would say, "Our eyes have only been dazzled. Rather, we are a people affected by magic." (15:14-15)
The Hour has come near, and the moon has split [in two]. And if they see a miracle, they turn away and say, "Passing magic." (54:1-2)
(More verses: 6:7, 10:2, 26:34, 27:13, 28:36, 34:43, etc.)
It is clear reading all the verses about it, that those who make this claim are disbelievers. The punishment and end of disbelievers is well-explained in the Quran and Sunnah.
There are some valid questions one may ask. Someone may ask: If someone believes in magic, how should he know the difference between a miracle and magic? Why would he be punished for denying a messenger that could be doing magic?
The answer: Messengers are chosen from those who have lived with their people for long, and their people know them very well. For example, the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) lived with his people forty years, he was well-known for his honesty and integrity, and his life was not a secret.
Ar-Razi mentions in his tafsir about 10:2 where the people of Makkah accuse the Quran of being magic ([But] the disbelievers say, "Indeed, this is an obvious magician"):
واعْلَمْ أنَّ هَذا الكَلامَ لَمّا كانَ في غايَةِ الفَسادِ لَمْ يُذْكَرْ جَوابُهُ، وإنَّما قُلْنا: إنَّهُ في غايَةِ الفَسادِ؛ لِأنَّهُ ﷺ كانَ مِنهم، ونَشَأ بَيْنَهم، وما غابَ عَنْهم، وما خالَطَ أحَدًا سِواهم، وما كانَ مَكَّةُ بَلْدَةَ العُلَماءِ والأذْكِياءِ حَتّى يُقالَ: إنَّهُ تَعَلَّمَ السِّحْرَ أوْ تَعَلَّمَ العُلُومَ الكَثِيرَةَ مِنهم فَقَدَرَ عَلى الإتْيانِ بِمِثْلِ هَذا القُرْآنِ. وإذا كانَ الأمْرُ كَذَلِكَ كانَ حَمْلُ القُرْآنِ عَلى السِّحْرِ كَلامًا في غايَةِ الفَسادِ، فَلِهَذا السَّبَبِ تُرِكَ جَوابُهُ.
Know that, because this statement is the height of nonsense, its answer is not mentioned. We just say: It is nonsense; because the Prophet (SAW) was from them, he grow up with them, he was never absent from them, and he did not collaborate with people other than them. And Makkah was not a land of scholars or intelligent people so that they might say "He learned magic from them" or "He learned many sciences from them until he was able to bring something like the Quran." When the matter is like this, calling the Quran magic is the height of nonsense, and because of this there was no explicit answer given in the verse.
So, it is a catch-22 for the disbelievers that claim his miracles are magic.
If the miracles are magic, how did he supposedly get so good at magic overnight? If he did do so, that is itself a miracle and a sign that he is being supported by God.
If the miracles are not magic, they have returned to our position.
So, even if the person claims the miracles are magic, after knowing that this man has lived with them for many years, never learned magic, and never lied before in his life, there is no way of denying the message is from God.
If someone accuses the miracles of being magic and also not from God he is simply being stubborn and going against logical and rational realities. At that point, let him go to Jahannam and think it is magic too. No proof that it is from God either right?
The Day they are thrust toward the fire of Hell with a [violent] thrust, [its angels will say], "This is the Fire which you used to deny. Then is this magic, or do you not see?" (52:13-15)
Someone might ask: Ok, even if the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) lived with his people all his life, some prophets like Musa (AS) did not. How could their people know it was not magic?
Answer: Musa (AS), even though he was away from his people for a long time, brought clear miracles to them and then challenged the most learned magicians of Egypt (and Egypt was the most expert land in magic at that time).
When the magicians saw the miracle Musa (AS) performed, they all immediately understood that it was not magic, and they all accepted Islam. This is recorded in many places of the Quran. No person except one who is stubborn to the point of blame can accuse Musa (AS) of magic after those who know magic the best clearly said it is not magic.
Then Moses threw his staff, and at once it devoured what they falsified. So the magicians fell down in prostration [to Allah]. They said, "We have believed in the Lord of the worlds, The Lord of Moses and Aaron." (26:45-48)
In conclusion, Allah does not send miracles in a way that it remains ambiguous to people whether it is magic or from God. People only reject after that in stubbornness or laziness, but not because of a lack of clarity. And Allah knows best.
If you do not believe in Prophet's miracle, you are not believing in Allah's ability to do that. Prophets didn't do any miracle on their own, they only did what Allah told them to and everything else is done by Allah himself.
Moses only threw the staff, Allah changed it to snake, not Moses. Ibrahim was thrown into fire, Allah changed it in to a peaceful area, not Ibrahim. Jesus just touched the people, Allah cured them from their disability and disease, not Jesus.
If you don't believe in any of those, you are not believing in Allah's ability to do those, nobody can believe that a fire wont burn you, but the creator of fire itself can change it. If Allah can make a thing to burn something, he can also make the same thing not to do it. So it is about Allah's ability, not just prophets miracle.
What do you mean by incapable of thinking that? Allah gave humans the ability to think for the sake of thinking about Allah's ability to do things and believe in him for that.
Human didn't create fire from nothing, he is using Allah's creation of physics to create it. If someone can believe that Allah can create fire from nothing and make it hot and burn things, then he can also believe that he can make the same thing not hot and do nothing. It is within human's thinking capability.
so believer should believe in prophet's miracle, otherwise they are not believing fully and will be asked questions about them in Judgement day.
Those that disregard the miracles as magic at very least believe in magic.
Those that know understand that upon 200 angels that landed on Mount Hermon does the responsibility lie for the craft arts taught to the human race.
There are two other angels who visit cities before their fall and are always referred to as good men. Haroot and Maroot are known to explain to those they teach magic to that the art is practiced at the price of their very own soul.
So I would believe that if one believe in magic then depending on their practices their soul is used as the currency of their actions.
So no loss if unpracticed and the cost of their soul for the use of what they believe.
Moses when encountered by magicians used what was provided to him when seeking guidance from a burning bush. His staff became a Serpent and ate the other serpents manifested by the magicians. They all told Pharaoh that what he performed was no magic that it was an act of God.
I hope you are doing well. ALLAH (Glory Be to HIM) has mentioned in the Quran
"And if they see a sign [i.e., miracle], they turn away and say, "Passing magic.
And they denied and followed their inclinations. But for every matter is a [time of] settlement."
Surah Qamar (Chapter 52 verses 2 and 3)
This happened during the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) during his time when we split the moon. They knew there is no way a human being could do that. They wanted to see a sign and he delivered. However, they attributed it to magic. Not wanting to think that it could be a sign. So they were following their beliefs and not wanting to truly open up to the possibility that the miracle is real. That is the first problem.
The second problem occurred when those people kept seeing signs and they saw the nature of the Prophets (Peace Be Upon Them All) that they were teaching them morality and uprightness and kindness. However, due to the teachings it would hurt the people's egos, businesses, life styles, morality, etc.
The verse that was mentioned in full states
"ALLAH (Glory Be To HIM) does not charge a soul except [with that within] its capacity. It will have [the consequence of] what [good] it has gained, and it will bear [the consequence of] what [evil] it has earned. "Our Lord, do not impose blame upon us if we have forgotten or erred. Our Lord, and lay not upon us a burden like that which You laid upon those before us. Our Lord, and burden us not with that which we have no ability to bear. And pardon us; and forgive us; and have mercy upon us. You are our protector, so give us victory over the disbelieving people." (Chapter 2 verse 286)
So ALLAH (Glory Be To HIM) would not give signs or miracles if people could not handle it. Nor would he give His Message if people could not bear it. But people can bear it.
Now after receiving the message if we make mistakes then we ask HIM (Glory Be To HIM) for forgiveness. HE (Glory Be to HIM) only gives us basic things to do and does not overwhelm us with things that we are not capable of doing. If you are healthy and could read and write then HE (Glory Be To HIM) might take you to task more than someone who is illiterate and sick. So each person based on his capacity will be judged.
ALLAH (Glory Be To HIM) Knows Best
In Surah Baqarah ayah 102 (Also known as ayat al-sihr) Allah azza waijal says
"Wretched is what (the black magicians) sold themselves for, if only they knew" 2:102 And also in the same ayat stands "They (the people who learned black magic) would not get a share in the hereafter" So if the prophets knew magic is haram, why would they do it? I also think disagreeing with Allah azza waijal's miracles is a form of kufr(disbelieve) and Allah knows best about what happens to the people in the akhira (after life)
once childishly Musa A.S asked Allah to show himself to Musa A.S Allah said no you cannot see,he insisted then on mount Judi Allah swt just showed his shadow the mountain turned to dust and Musa A.S was unconcious for 40 days.
he could have died if Allah willed.but Allah saved him and left unconsious.s you said yourself Allah does not give work beyond there capability you have been given some signs you can understand others can more or less with there capabilities.
other Prophets were given signs as they have not been given complete books as we have. we have been given Quran which covers all types fields all of them. be it science or engineering or pycological or emotional or etymological etc.it gives what will happen in future with you and all the universe in detail manner. are you capable to understand. the sign this ummah has been given is of understanding. you plant a seed it grows in herb then tree then gives out fruits etc it is periodical to understand you have to sit daily looking after it it is persistantly happening you see or not but it is magic a seed destroys itself (can you see) a stem comes out of it (can you see) it grows leaves (can you see) it grows flowers (can you see) it grows with more leaves (can you see) it is all magic it each phase destroys and give shape to new phase.it is uniformly happening
UNDER WHOSE EYES ? who controls excess or less food to it to grow. so is your case Allah gives you what you can understand you dont understand and straight away assume it is wrong. that is un-uniform.