I'll investigate this question: Is there any verse in the Quran which states that dancing is haram?
Conclusion: Multiple fatawa on the topic failed to cite Qur'an ayat declaring dancing haram, and some fatawa even declare modest dancing to be halal. From this, we can surmise that no verse of the Qur'an declares dancing haram.
The most relevant Qur'an ayah mentioned in these fatawa is:
And of the people is he who buys the amusement of speech to mislead [others] from the way of Allah without knowledge and who takes it in ridicule. Those will have a humiliating punishment. -- Qur'an 31:6
I found this quoted three times. Islam Awakened gives others translations. No translation directly mentions dancing.
Islam Q&A has several fatawa on the topic (1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6). This one even mentions a scholar who writes "Dancing is makrooh in principle".
IslamWeb also has fatawa on the topic (1; 2; 3; 4). This fatwa even writes: "there is nothing wrong for a young girl who is not desired for sexual intercourse to dance in front of men provided that she does not dance in a way that causes temptation".
Darul Ifta Birmingham writes: "Dancing is haraam by the consensus of all the Fuqahaa (Jurists)", not quoting the Qur'an.
Other fatawa are: Qibla.com (sourced from IslamQA.org 1; 2); MuftiSays; Darul Ifta Deoband; SeekersHub.