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One can sin and subsequently forget; or sin without realizing it; or have a host of sins, some major and some minor. As such, when one is punished in the afterlife, it may not be immediately clear why. Of course, Allah could just explain why.

Question: If we are punished in the afterlife, will we know why?

Perhaps our sins and their respective punishments will be itemized on the Day of Judgement. Along these lines is:

Then on the Day of Resurrection he will be brought to account for every major and minor action, even though he has already been brought to account for that in the grave. -- Islam Q&A

This indicates that we will be aware to some degree (or maybe we're just accounting for major and minor actions, but without knowledge of how each is contributing to the quality of our afterlife).

I'm not sure where I could begin searching for an answer to this question, Googling the title of this question (link) doesn't give relevant hits.

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    legacy.quran.com/41/19-23 is definitely relevant, although that context is more about disbelievers willfully and knowingly sinning and expecting/hoping to hide it from Allah, rather than they themselves being unaware of what they've done. – goldPseudo Oct 15 '16 at 2:26
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This verse is a sufficient answer:

And then the Record of their deeds shall be placed before them and you will see the guilty full of fear for what it contains, and will say: "Woe to us! What a Record this is! It leaves nothing, big or small, but encompasses it." They will find their deeds confronting them. Your Lord wrongs no one.

http://tanzil.net/#trans/en.maududi/18:49

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Many verses of the Quran speaking of the Judgement day cover this read for instance:

The Day every soul will find what it has done of good present [before it] and what it has done of evil, it will wish that between itself and that [evil] was a great distance. ...3:30

There, [on that Day], every soul will be put to trial for what it did previously, ... 10:30

... and We will produce for him on the Day of Resurrection a record which he will encounter spread open. (13) [It will be said], "Read your record. Sufficient is yourself against you this Day as accountant." 17:13-14

And they will be presented before your Lord in rows, ...(48) And the record [of deeds] will be placed [open], and you will see the criminals fearful of that within it, and they will say, "Oh, woe to us! What is this book that leaves nothing small or great except that it has enumerated it?" And they will find what they did present [before them]. ... 18-48-49

Man will be informed that Day of what he sent ahead and kept back. 75:13

The Day when secrets will be put on trial, ... 86:9

So on this day anything might it be big or small, good or bad, ... we committed would be revealed to us, and we will be waiting for Allah's judgement!

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