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OK, so I know very little about Islam, but this question doesn't seem to be Google-able. I've seen some people in the Qur'an described with a.s. after their name - such as Nuh a.s. What does that mean?

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"a.s." is short for "'Alayhi al-Salaam" (عليه السلام), which is an Arabic phrase meaning "Peace be upon him". It is often used by Muslims after the names of the prophets as a term of respect.

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As @goldPseudo correctly mentioned, "a.s." is the short form of "'Alayhi al-Salaam" (عليه السلام), which is an Arabic phrase and it means "Peace be upon him" and actually it is often used by Muslims after the names of the prophets as a term of respect.

On the other hand, as well as the front of prophets' names, it is often used by Shia Muslims for Shia Imams, too. For instance:

Imam Ali (a.s.) said ... So, it also means "peace be upon him" for Shia Imams.

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A.S. means "Peace be Upon Him" used after the mention of Prophets and Angels (like Jibreel –Gabriel- A.S). As mentioned, Shia uses the term on their Imams. The term can be used on the Beloved Prophet Muhammad Salla llahu alay-hi wa sallam but (salla llahu alayh-hi wa sallam is recommended). See Wikipedia for more on it.

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