In the name of Allah, the Beneficent. most Merciful
All praise and thanks are due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. We cannot find words to praise Him, as He only sees fit how laudation should be addressed to Him. We seek refuge in Allah from the evils within ourselves and the evils of our bad deeds. Whosoever Allah guides will never be led astray, and whosoever He leads astray will never find guidance. We bear witness that there is no god but Allah, the One without any associate, and We bear witness that Muhammad is His Messenger and bondman, peace and blessings be upon him, his kith and kin, his Companions and all those who follow their guidance until the Day of Judgment.
Does Allah have limitations? As Allah is the greatest, we understand that there is none greater but does this mean that there is nothing outside of his ability?
Can Allah take any created thing out of the creation with out destroying it or uncreating it??
Or can Allah create another Allah (Allah is uncreated)?
Or can Allah go against the Quran?
This is a thought that was presented to me, if I were to believe that there limitations to Allah's ablity as mentioned above would this be considered shirk or kuffr?
Q-1: Can Allah take any created thing out of the creation with out destroying it or uncreating it??
"Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, and We separated them" [The Prophets, 21:30]
"And [for] their saying, "Indeed, we have killed the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, the messenger of Allah ." And they did not kill him, nor did they crucify him; but [another] was made to resemble him to them. And indeed, those who differ over it are in doubt about it. They have no knowledge of it except the following of assumption. And they did not kill him, for certain. Rather, Allah raised him to Himself. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise..." [The Women, 4:157, 4:158]
Allah also took prophet Idris into Paradise, not only Jesus Christ. So, what do we learn here is that Allah has taken them outside the creation.
"For each [religious following] is a direction toward which it faces. So race to [all that is] good. Wherever you may be, Allah will bring you forth [for judgement] all together. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent" [The Cow, 2:148]
Q-2: Or can Allah create another Allah (Allah is uncreated)?
In this question which is “Or can Allah create another Allah (Allah is uncreated)?” has serious logical mistake and a deep ignorance and also it is an absurd question. Because one of the Allah’s attributes is “wujud” (existence). In that Allah’s existence is from himself and he does not need anyone else to exist.
Hence, this matter is impossible, because if the other one was a god, it would not be possible to create him. To assume that he can be a god and be created is impossible.
Allah’s existence is pre-eternal. Anything that is “created” is not pre-eternal and thus cannot be a “God”. Hence, the idea of something being “created” and being a “God” simultaneously is irrational. The limitless power of Allah applies to things that are rational; the limitless power of Allah cannot be applied to things that are irrational.
The idea of another god existing alongside Allah is inherently impossible. There is a great deal of evidence to suggest that it is impossible, the least of which is the existence of this organized universe. If there were another god, the system of the universe would be spoiled because they would compete with one another and each of them would want to prevail over the other, as Allah Says:
"Had there been within the heavens and earth gods besides Allah, they both would have been ruined. So exalted is Allah, Lord of the Throne, above what they describe." [The Prophets, 21:22]
"Allah has not taken any son, nor has there ever been with Him any deity. [If there had been], then each deity would have taken what it created, and some of them would have sought to overcome others. Exalted is Allah above what they describe [concerning Him]." [The Believers, 23:91]
Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) said in his Tafseer:
i.e., if there was a number of gods, each one of them would have taken away that which he created and the universe would be in disarray. What we see is that the universe is organized and orderly, and each realm, upper and lower, is connected to the other in the most perfect manner. "[And] who created seven heavens in layers. You do not see in the creation of the Most Merciful any inconsistency. So return [your] vision [to the sky]; do you not see any breaks?" [The Sovereignty]
Allah Subhanah is the All-Just and always does justice. If He so wishes, He can be unjust, and none can stop Him from being so. But it does not behove the Glory and Majesty of the Merciful Lord to be unjust!
Also, whoever Allah Subhanah creates, will always be His creation; and as it will be His creation, and thus His slave like all His creation; and he will be subject to the laws of Allah Subhanah, the Lord of the Worlds. If Allah Subhanah can create something, He has the power to destroy it too. Besides, Allah Subhanah has declared Himself that He is One, Alone, and Only; and there is none like Him at all in the Universe!
"[He is] Creator of the heavens and the earth. He has made for you from yourselves, mates, and among the cattle, mates; He multiplies you thereby. There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing." [The Consultation, 42:11]
One who has wisdom can clearly understand that “A CREATION CANNOT BE A CREATOR.” In other words, an object created by Allah, as the name implies, is a creature and impotent. Its duty is to worship his creator whom it needs to exist.
Allah Is the One “Not Created”. The Created One May Not Be “Allah”.
Q-3 Or can Allah go against Quran?
"Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur'an and indeed, We will be its guardian." [The Rocky Tract, 15:9]
What is meant is that no one can change the words of Allah. As for Allah Himself, may He be exalted, He may replace one verse with another, which is known as abrogation. Allah Says:
"And when We substitute a verse in place of a verse - and Allah is most knowing of what He sends down - they say, "You, [O Muhammad], are but an inventor [of lies]." But most of them do not know." [The Bee, 16:101]
"We do not abrogate a verse or cause it to be forgotten except that We bring forth [one] better than it or similar to it. Do you not know that Allah is over all things competent?" [The Cow, 2:106]
What is meant here is that, if Allah has the power to create a verse, He can also go against Quran. But He Decreed To Preserve it. To prove more, here is a narration which speaks about swearing.
The Prophet said, "If anybody has to take an oath, he should swear only by Allah." The people of Quraish used to swear by their fathers, but the Prophet said, "Do not swear by your fathers."
-Sahih Al-Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 58, Number 177-
The Prophet(pbuh) forbid us to swear other than Him,
The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: Do not swear by your fathers, or by your mothers, or by rivals to Allah; and swear by Allah only, and swear by Allah only when you are speaking the truth.
(Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 21, Number 3242)
Allah, too, makes promises but Allah’s promises in the Quran are extremely different from the promises that we make as Muslims to each other. Allah’s promises never break!
Based on this, Allah has the power to go against His revelation. It is proven that, in Islam, it is haram to swear by anything other than Allah. Yet, Allah swears by anyone He wishes. Also, Allah has promised that He should fulfill His words, so we shouldn't even think about "can Allah go against revelation?" Yes, of course He can, but He does not do it. He is All Capable.