All perfect praise be to Allah
This is a matter which is greatly confused.
What it means by "ascribes himself to someone other than his (real) father" is to say HE IS MY FATHER, while he is not. And you know it he is not your father and you are still letting people to believe he is your father. It's not that we need that father's name in our name...
As long as people know (its not confusing) and we make it clear that this name in my name is not my father's name, this is totally fine.
I know popular fatwa sites like islamqa has fatwa's against this, and they consider wife putting name of husband also in this category of ascribing to someone else than the father. But, i will humbly disagree with them. And i have seen many fatawa on this topic, and i am convinced there is absolutely no issue in doing so if this is a cultural norm and people know who is this person in your name and who is your real father, and there is no confusion.
Now, if we try to take some examples
Allah has ascribed some women to people other than their fathers in Quran:
The wife of Noah and the wife of Lut. (At-Tahrim, 10)
The wife of Pharaoh. (At-Tahrim, 11)
In hadees it states:
And when he reached his house, Zainab, the wife of Ibn Mas`ud, came
and asked permission to enter It was said, "O Allah's Messenger (ﷺ)!
It is Zainab." He asked, 'Which Zainab?" The reply was that she was
the wife of Ibn Mas'ub. He said, "Yes, allow her to enter." And she
was admitted Sahih al-Bukhari 1462
Now, one reason being given by some fatawas is that it is imitation of kuffaar. While if this is cultural norm somewhere, like in our area of india and pakistan etc, then it's not imitation, it's just cultural thing. And a thing which does not contradict with islamic teachings so it cannot be HARAAM!!
If someone do replace his last name with someone else's name, while it is not the cultural thing but pure imitation or something, then there is problem, otherwise there is no issue.
Now making all this clear, one can say that this was not culture of prophet's time, so it's not islamic culture to take husband name(people knowing its husband not father). Yes, that's right, no one is calling it ISLAMIC culture, but forbidding(saying its haraam) is way too much. If someone rules that it is better not to take husband name, than it can make sense. But not totally forbidding this, when there is nothing like attributing someone else as father being done.
Now coming to your question, about taking name at different positions etc, if this is cultural thing and there is a reason of doing this and people will not confuse it with your father name, than there is no issue, but if this is not cultural thing and can be confused as your father name, than don't do it. Its as simple as that.
PS: I know there can be great difference of opinion on this topic, we can discuss it in a good manner. Leave a positive comment and we will discuss about it.
If someone is still confusing the verse mentioned above about calling with father's name, than you should know it was about the fact that, in that time, people used to call taken/adopted children with the person who raised them, calling him his father. It was about that. like if Ali raised ahmed, ahmed was called ahmed bin ali, and used to get all rights of son, including his part in wirasat etc... That was the case. It was about that thing. And calling like this is forbidden. You can read tafseers about it.
Let me quote from hadees:
Narrated Ibn 'Umar: "We called Zaid bin Harithah nothing but 'Zaid bin
Muhammad' until the Qur'an was revealed (ordering): Call them by their
fathers, that is more just according to Allah. (33:5)" Ibn majah Vol. 1, Book 46, Hadith 3814 and Sahi-Bukhari Vol. 6, Book 60, Hadith 305
Allah knows best