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Can someone please explain to me what do the Seven Earths in the Quran and Sahih Hadith refer to? Please support your answer with references.

“It is Allah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof (i.e. seven). His Command descends between them (heavens and earth), that you may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah surrounds (comprehends) all things in (His) Knowledge.” -- at-Talaaq 65:12

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The word 'ard' literally means 'land'. Any place that humans can migrate to, colonize or live on, or any stellar system where life can exist is also 'ard'. All rocky planets in the universe also have 'land', just as on earth. This planet itself is too insignificant to be mentioned as a separate creation: there are billions on earth-like planets in the universe, and Quran 42:29 says that God has spread out living creatures throughout the universe (the 'skies and the land'). So 'land' is any place which sustains life: basically stellar systems made of matter, since we are all made out of star dust.

The word 'samaa' literally means 'sky': the space around us that we can seen from our land, and the plural 'samawaat' means 'skies'. Quran says that God created the 7 skies are created in 'layers' (67:3, 71:5). What we can observe is 'samaa ad-duniya': the 'sky of this world' or 'lowest sky', adorned with 'lamps' (stars) [67:3-5, 41:9-12]. Other skies (universes) are beyond the observable sky (universe) that we inhabit.

Then 65:12 would mean that other skies / universes also have land / matter, similar to ours. But each sky has its own physical law ['amr'] (41:12). God knows what it is like, and how they are different; we cannot know.

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According to Arab tradition seven means many. So God created 7 (many) heavens (galaxy) and of the earth the like like thereof (many Earth-like planets).. This is accordance to the first ayat in the Fatihah "Praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds"

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my comment Difference between 7 skies and position of the heavens? :

i think 7 skies are the structures of universe which stay one type inside another type: our moon and satellites are structure no 1, our sun with its planets and asteroids and other stars with their planets are structure no 2, galaxies are structure no 3 or 4 or 5 ... and upper levels are invisible, because light from them cannot flight to us as fast as universe widens. and 7 earths are in contrawise direction: 1: stones and soil and water etc, 2: molecules, 3: atoms, 4: protons, electrons etc; 5: quarks, leptons, etc ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quark ); 6: i do not know.