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Of course -especially- men are asked to perform the Friday prayer. And there's a special "hour" in this day where our dua's may be "answered". ...

But what other deeds are we asked to do or leave between the sunsets of Thursday and Friday,as AFAIK this is the correct day-count in Islam... For example is there a difference (advisable or inadvisable) in our usual worships, is there a special time when one should take a bath/shower for jumuah and reading surat al-kahf etc.?

NOTE
I'm not interested in acts that are related to the Friday prayer in special!

5
+25

Assalamu alaikum, so as you know Fridays are special days in Islam. If you want to worship in the best ways you must look at to messenger of Allah and the prophet Rasulallah (Pbuh). How is he doing, we should do likewise. Our worship is precious as similar to his worship. If we look at prayer with only this approach, we can be a best Muslim.

So let's look at the tradition of the prophet Rasulallah (Pbuh);

  • To have a bath (Ghusl) (Bukhari, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah) On one Friday, Rasulallah said: “O Muslims! Allah Ta’ala has made this day a day of Eid. So have a bath on this day, whoever has perfume should apply it, and use the Miswaak. “ (Ibn Majah)
  • To use Miswaak (Bukhari, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)
  • To cut nail Fridays.
  • To use Attar (Perfume) (Bukhari, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)
  • To wear nice clothes (Abu Dawood, Chapter of Ghusl on the day of Jummah)
  • To proceed early as possible to the Masjid for Jummah
  • You should listen very attentively to the khutba even if one does not understand.
  • To try to sit as close as possible to the Imaam.
  • When Rasulallah (Pbuh) name is mentioned in the khutba then it is permissible to recite durood in the heart only without the movement of the lips or tongue.
  • Between the two khutba’s one should make dua. It is permissible to make dua without raising hands or moving the lips (I.e. dua should be made in the heart only without the movement of the lips or the tongue) (Aadaab -E – Zindagee)
  • Making abundant dua on Jummah Rasulallah (Pbuh) said: “There is such an hour on Friday that if any Muslim makes dua in it, his dua will definitely be accepted.” (Bukhari, Muslim)
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    Salam and welcome to Islam SE. Please consider taking some time to learn more about this site and the stack exchange model by taking our tour and checking our help center. – Medi1Saif Aug 8 '16 at 10:24
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    Good attempt, please note that most of your quotes are related to the jumua'h prayer I'd like to have more information about the whole day! – Sassir Aug 8 '16 at 10:27
  • Thanks @Sassir, look at for more detail: --> link --> link --> link – ATES Aug 8 '16 at 12:41
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    @ATES it might be better if you edit your answer and add related part to your answer also – nim Aug 10 '16 at 7:13
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    @Sassir Apart from points mentioned above, remember Allah as much as you can. To conclude this answer, we should treat Jumu'ah as any other normal day and carry on with our work as we would normally do but with the exceptions mentioned above. By default it is a normal day. – servant-of-Wiser Aug 10 '16 at 8:11
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Here some prohibitions and recommendations which maybe an additions to the given answer:

Prohibitions

  • We are discouraged to fast Friday only (see for example in sahih Muslim and in sahih al-Bukhari). It is reported that both abu Hanifa and Malik have allowed it and even considered it mustahab see for example in the Muwatta' is also what Imam at-Thirmdhi pointed at in his comment on this hadith which shows that our Messenger often fasted on Fridays. Maliki scholars interprted Malik's view based on this sahih hadith, so Imam Malik meant that it is allowed to fast a Friday, but one shouldn't specify a special Friday or any other day, week or month of the year as "the" day, week, month to fast (voluntary fasts), as our Prophet used to do worships in a regular manner.
    Note if you are making up days from Ramadan or any other kind of non optional fasts you are allowed to fast that day. This also applies for the case if Friday was on a day which is recommended to fast like the day of 'Arafah and 'Ashura'. (See also this fatwa)
  • We are discouraged to specify the night of (Thursday to) Friday for qiyam (night prayer) (see for example in sahih Muslim).
  • To travel on this day for those who are ordered to perform the Friday prayer (males in first place) with differences in the views of the scholars: Some said it is allowed (abu Hanifa), some said one shouldn't start a journey before the Jumuah prayer etc. But there are evidences showing it is allowed.
  • To leave trading once the call for the prayer goes out, this is one of the reasons one shouldn't travel at the time for Jumuah prayer (62:9).
  • To step over the people's shoulders in the mosque for the Friday prayer (see for example this hadith).

Recommendations

  • To praise or send greetings and blessings to our Prophet on the day and night (see for example sunan ibn Majah).
  • To read or recite in salat a-sobh/al-fajr (fard) surat as-sajdah in the first rak'a and surat al-Inssan in the second rak'a (See in sunan ibn Majah)
  • To take a bath (doing ghusl), put on some perfume, use siwak and wear good or new clothes before leaving for Jumuah prayer.
  • To go early to the mosque to pray jumuah prayer (see for example in al-Muwatta').
  • To pray or recite quran or make dikhr until the Imam comes out to hold the Khotba for Friday and listen to it.
  • It is sunnah for the Imam to recite either surat al-Jumuah and surat al-Munafiqun or surat al-A'la and al-Ghashiya in the Jumuah prayer (see also this hadith).
  • It is recommended to go to Jumuah on feet rather than riding (can be concluded from already linked ahadith).
  • To read or recite surat al-Kahf (See this fatwa).
  • To make dua' at any time of the day hoping to meet the special hour (Seee in sahih Muslim).

and many more...

See also this hadith:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: Three types of people attend Friday prayer; One is present in a frivolous way and that is all he gets from it; another comes with a supplication, Allah may grant or refuse his request as He wishes; another is present silently and quietly with-out stepping over a Muslim or annoying anyone, and that is an atonement for his sins till the next Friday and three days more, the reason being that Allah, the Exalted, says: "He who does a good deed will have ten times as much" (vi.160).

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