I'm curious about Islam, this is one question that's is not clear for me, based on what I read.
Scholars have given different answers to different issues when it comes to praying or making dua' (supplication) for a non-Muslim: Making difference in the cause, intent or goal of the prayer, whether the non-Muslim is alive or not and finally about his attitude towards Muslims and Islam.
Generally one could say:
- It's not allowed to pray for (forgiveness for) a non-Muslim who is dead and died as a disbeliever!
"There is no difference of opinion among the scholars that one cannot pray for forgiveness and mercy for a kaafir who died in a state of kufr."
Some details for non-Muslims who are alive:
- It is allowed to pray for the guidance of a non-Believer, if one expects him to convert to Islam!
- The most common view is that it is allowed to pray for a non-Muslim asking Allah to have mercy on him (but there's no consensus among scholars about this Issue)
"in the sense that Allah may bestow mercy upon him by saving him from sin and guiding him to obedience, and thus transferring him from being one of those who are subject to His wrath to being one of those upon whom He bestows His mercy".
- But in general it is not allowed to ask for forgiveness and mercy for non-Muslims because of the Verses (9:113-114).
- It is allowed to do supplication for a non-Muslim asking Allah to heal him from a disease or wealth or anything which we may want in this life! Unless this non-Muslim is hostile to Muslims! As Scholars toke the hadith about the rights of Neighbors as an evidence (see for example here)
Here are a few related References:
- A Fatwa on praying for forgiveness and mercy for a kaafir
- A Fatwa on praying for guidance for a kaafir
- A Fatwa in Arabic on what kind of supplication or prayer is allowed (can a Muslim perform) for a non-Believer
- A Fatwa on the rights of non-Muslim Neighbors towards a Muslim