There is an interesting fully metaphoric story about a one named "ذوالقرنین/Zulqarnayn/Two-Eyes Owner" in Quran. [18:83]
I would like to know what does God mean about each metaphor in the story; so is there any comparable historical document(s)?
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No historical document. In fact he is not known exactly. Perhaps we already know him but he is not known exactly by identity in Islam. But there are some guess/interpretations based on Hadithes about him.
Some Hadith say he has been a believer with high spiritual rank. But he not been a prophet. A pious and knowledgeable man who God loved him. Like the Luqman لقمان mentioned in Quran.