Does Islam permit swearing?
I mean like:
I swear by my mother that I didn't do it.
Or is it forbidden?
Or should I swear only by Allah's or Quran's name?
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In Islam (from Sunni viewpoint), it is not permissible to swear by anything else other than Allah. In fact, most Scholars of Islam have reported a consensus that this is prohibited. There is an odd view that it is permissible to swear by the Prophet (Peace be upon him), however it is groundless. There are several Sahih Hadith which prohibit swearing by anything other than Allah.
'Umar ibn Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him), that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Verily! Allah forbids you to swear by your fathers. If one has to take an oath, they should swear by Allah or else keep silent.' [Al-Bukhari]
'Imam Ahmad related through an authentic chain of narrators on the authority of `Umar ibn Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) from the Prophet (peace be upon him): "Whoever swears by anything other than Allah has committed Shirk," the author-Anyone who swears by other than Allah has become a Kafir (disbeliever) or Mushrik (one who associates others with Allah in His Divinity or worship) [Ahmad]'
It depends on the way its being used many people swear on their lives or others lives when if fact its not your belonging
" Inna Lillahi Wa Inna Ilayhi Raaji'oon-2:156"
which means we belong to allah and to him we return.
Many people have the belief that when you swear on your life or your mothers life and your lying you will be killed, but in islam we belive in predestiny and our death date is already set and nothing will change it even if you swear and lie.
But if you are using it in a way in which you are simply giving them a your firm promise that you aren't lying its fine because in islam if somthing isnt prohibited by hadith or quran it's okay in islam.
Many scholars such as iman al mawasili and kamal ibn al humam state that swearing on anything other than Allah is acceptable but the oath isnt an acceptable islamic oath but rather traditional and tradition is acceptable in islam.As the matter of the quran, many belive its an attribute of allah so its acceptable to swear on it.
Imam al-Mawsili (Allah have mercy on him) states: “And taking an oath by other than Allah Most High will not be considered to be an (valid) oath, such as taking an oath by the Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace), Qur’an and the Ka’ba.” (al-Ikhtiyar li Ta’lil al-Mukhtar, 2/280)
Kamal (ibn al-Humam, the great Hanafi Mujtahid) said: “Let it be known that the taking of an oath by the Qur’an is something that has become customary, thus it would be considered a valid oath.”