Salam everyone, I have question to ask. When ALLAH s.w.t had ordered us that we should not make any kind of tafriqa (sectarianism/splitting) then why all the Muslims have made their tafriqas (sects) and are they all Muslims as they are not following ALLAH s.w.t commands and orders.
In the name of God
In answering to this question, we must review all the Islamic history. Some important events are the origin of disunion and separation in Muslims:
1- The disagreement about the issue of caliphate of the prophet (p): you know Shia believe that Imam Ali (p) is successor of the prophet because of the events of Ghadir, but Sunni believe that Abu-baker is the successor....
2- The governments and policies: the governments for saving themselves tried to cause disunion in Muslims...
3- The relation between Muslims and the other religion's followers: Although some of them became Muslims, but they tried to enter their doctrine into the Islamic doctrine (1).
Also there are many reasons....
1- http://hodat.ir [In Persian].
well, most of the problem's come from where prophet dies and Muslim's try to select the next caliphate....
Shia's say that prophet has selected the next caliphate in Ghadir, but sunnies believe that the prophet has selected the friend or a good guy not the next caliphate...
other problem's are problem's of each fraction, like in Shia, cleric's from Iran believe that supreme leader is needed in time that the 12th Imam isn't present, but Shia clerics from Iraq don't believe so!
the other thing is, some Shia cleric's from Iraq(mostly) and Iran say that we should have Tatbir, but iran's supreme leader and his following cleric's call Tatbir as Harram...
as you can see, the major problem's are political... and a few are from the sharia itself... and politic, has Tafraqa in it
To answer in simple words
- Answer to question 1: Because Muslims have gone astray
- Answer to question 2: Yes, by getting themselves involved in tafaraqas, they are denying command and orders of ALLAH
Tafaraqa starts when we start pointing fingers at other Muslims. Like, "he is responsible", "she is responsible", "they are responsible", or "they do it wrong" or trying to question if someone else is a Muslim or not. etc.
ALLAH knows what part of Islam reached us and what part didn't reach us and how much of us were interested in obeying ALLAH and how much were interested in just trying to be called "learned." ALLAH would not question us for the knowledge that couldn't reach us, but would definitely ask us about the knowledge we had.
We know that Namaz is farz, still we don't say our prayers regularly, we know that zakat is farz(fard) but we try to somehow find a way out of it, we know that our daughters and sisters have a share in our/our father's money, but we deny it, we know that "Al Muslim o mann Sallim al Muslimoon a min-lisaanihi wa yadihi" but we kill eachother even in the name of Islam and ALLAH (NauzubiLLAH)
These are the questions ALLAH would ask us about first, if we executed orders of ALLAH properly, but instead we keep fighting over secondary things like "where should we place our hands while in namaz" and "how many witrs" and "should we celebrate Eid-e-Milad-un-Nabi" etc. etc. which is self distracting and may be an attempt to justify our sins or trying to find refuge from our sins in things other than ALLAH
So if a person is really interested in truth then truth will find him/her, as ALLAH says (A Hadith-e-Qudsi), "if you come walking towards me, I (ALLAH) will come running towards you"
The history is quite big.
As a Muslim you should only call yourself a Muslim, some saw people practice certain things which they thought was corruption within the religion. Some sought to purify themselves from this corruption by labeling themselves with what they followed. Slowly these groups had following they became their own sects. This is generally similar to what the people of the book (Jews & Christians) did too. But these were prophecized by Rasoul'Allah(saws), how we would followed the same errors as them and how we would have many sects.
The Prophet (ﷺ) said: The Jews were split up into seventy-one or seventy-two sects; and the Christians were split up into seventy one or seventy-two sects; and my community will be split up into seventy-three sects.
Grade : Hasan Sahih (Al-Albani)
Reference : Sunan Abi Dawud 4596
You would tread the same path as was trodden by those before you inch by inch and step by step so much so that if they had entered into the hole of the lizard, you would follow them in this also. We said: Allah's Messenger, do you mean Jews and Christians (by your words)" those before you"? He said: Who else (than those two religious groups)?
Sahih Muslim 2669 a
None the less if you are a Sunni, Shia, Sufi, etc.. There is only one name which is appropriate which is Muslim, you can say that you follow a certain school of thought (which many scholars have said is so many ways better because you are not left to your own limits on interpretation & knowledge ).
Also our differences on what we value as Islam are very trivial when we look at the bigger picture. Which is belief in Allah (swt) and belief in his Prophets and Messengers. We would probably have less problems in the Ummah if we just learned to disagree and not transform that disagreement into bitter hatred. Even some classical scholars even had disagreements on certain issues.
Also we cannot blame one particular group for the division within the Ummah because even to this day we could work for re-unification of the whole Ummah but both major parties and minor parties don't seem to want it they rejoice in what Allah (swt) has provided for them and they neglect sometimes the brotherhood.
For each one are successive [angels] before and behind him who protect him by the decree of Allah . Indeed, Allah will not change the condition of a people until they change what is in themselves. And when Allah intends for a people ill, there is no repelling it. And there is not for them besides Him any patron.
And Allah (swt) knows best.