For major Christian faiths, catechisms maintained by religious authorities are relatively concise summaries of their doctrine. (One example, from the Episcopal Book of Common Prayer, can be found here.) They are useful for launching deeper inquiry and providing basic knowledge to children, converts, and curious strangers.

Are there analogous (semi-)authoritative documents published in English by major Islamic institutions, useful for a stranger who wishes to gain basic knowledge? Wikipedia's page on catechisms mentions something called Ilm ul-Hal, but most of the high-ranking Google results for this term aren't in English.

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There aren't any normative catechisms in the world of Islam, though certain cultures have developed divergent practices one may describe as Catechesis.

For example, the Six Kalimas (six statements) and two declarations of faith would form the catechisms for South Asian Sunni Muslim communities. Kids memorize them without even understanding a bit of meanings. Outside the culture hardly any Muslims even knows of these Kalimas. A notable difference however is that unlike Christian catechisms the format is not that of short question and answers. Question style catechisms are rather part of the subject Islamiyat (or Deeniyat) taught to children in early school education. School curriculum on Islam has gradually superseded the old catechisms, which are memorized additionally by the more religious-minded people.

I'm unaware of any catechisms in other Muslim communities but I would expect elementary education for children to have some catechisms.

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