As far as I can tell we have not for all of the Verses of the Quran neither a Hadith telling us when they exactly were revealed nor a Hadith telling us the reason behind the revelation. Even if we know this for many Verses and Suwar (Surats). For example we know that Surat Yusuf/Yosouf was revealed in the Year of grief ('Aam al Huzn), but if we take it more exactly it's only the Verses telling the Story of the prophet Yusuf (peace be upon him) whom where revealed at that time.
This link provides a chronological order of the Suwar/Surats of the Quran. I have big doubts that the order for surat al-Mudathir is correct, as at least the first verses from it were the 2nd revelation according many sahih hadiths I know.
But when we read in books about the uloom-al-quran (the sciences of Qur'an) we find different opinions about the chronological revelation of some Verses or Suwar, for example a not strong opinion is that Surat al-Fatiha was the very first Surah revealed! And the information whether a Surah is Madani or Makki which we find in some Masahif at the beginning of each Surah is just a general hint, because even in a Makki Surah you may find Madani verses and vice versa. And on the other hand (if we get granular) apparently Makki doesn't for sure mean it was revealed before the Hijjra! As specialists can differ between daily and nightly revelation, revelation on a journey etc. so there are Verses that have been revealed while the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was in Mekka (or near Mekka) after the Hijra, but of course in a Mushaf it refers to a Surah of whom most Verses were revealed before the Hijrah!
I would like to know if there have been books treating this matter (a chronological compilation of the Quran Verses, in Arabic ترتيب المصحف حسب ترتيب النزول) specifically and how they dealt with Verses which don't seem to have any chronological back ground!
There are 3 defintions of Makki and Madani which are used by scholars:
- Anything which was revealed in Mekka is makki and anything which was revealed in Medina is madani!
- Anything which was revealed before hijra is makki anything afterwards is madani (this is the most common definition, or at least the one any layman would know).
- Anything which was addressing people of Mekka is makki, anything addressing people of Medina is madani!