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I've just answered a question, and then posted this comment:

If your asking is Allah the universe then no, Allah is seated upon his throne, i.e. islam does not claim Allah is omnipresent. If you are asking if what they call the 'universe' is actually Allah then...I'm going to say no but it's not as clear cut. I don't think anyone calling on the 'universe' consciously or subconsciously would 'get' Allah, unless they intended to call on him.

So I'm left wondering (as I am not 100% certain, and at a slight tangent), if you called upon Allah but not by a known name, but in your heart you wanted 'whatever supreme power out there' to respond (even if you called it 'the universe'), would that be considered Taghut? Would that be a valid (if flawed) form of right-worship?

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    God willing someone will write out a proper answer, but until then you can reflect upon "Call upon Allah or call upon the Most Merciful. Whichever [name] you call - to Him belong the best names." – goldPseudo Sep 25 '12 at 22:22
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Allah is not the universe but its creator, and he is omnipresent but not in its physical sense.

Let me bring you an example. Imagine an infinitely large clean white paper, with only one single black dot on it, is place in your front close to your eyes. You don't see the borders of the paper, it is just too large, thus, if someone asks you what do you see You'll answer only a simple black dot! You will not report back a black impact on a white paper as you just cannot recognize the white paper from void when you are not able to see its boundaries (the paper's texture is assumed as invisible to your eyes). If someone paints the paper and then ask you what do you see you will describe the shapes drawn in colors but will never answer back a paper with some colors on it as you see the colors on the paper not the paper under color (again the paper's texture is ignored), again the paper would be understood not any more than void in the absence of intuition. This is a mere example to say if I am asked about what I see from when I get up in my bed in the morning to when I go to my bed in the night I can describe quite many things that I have seen that day but I just cannot describe the reality that nothing exists but Allah, we are all only some impacts owing our existence (not only first becoming to existence but also remaining existed) to His creation.

This was one example, now let me bring another example which describes the creativity of Allah better (although still in a translative manner). Suppose you stand in front of a mirror, do you agree that what you see in mirror does not exist at all? Of course there is no "you" behind the mirror, that's only "the imaginary you, mirrored". But of course you can describe what you see, the color of skin, the form of nose, the kind of clothing, the height, the fatness, the shape of face and style of hairs and etc. . Hey, you are just describing what doesn't exist in real! Similarly some Muslims believe that nothing exist but Allah. He is the only existence whose existence owe to nothing else (He is the true Needless). But then he will to create something, the creation for God is roughly like imagination for us, God creates just as He will as we can produce a whole imaginary world just as we will. All of us whose existence owes to the existence and continuous creation of Allah exist only to the extent that Allah will give us existence, to one in the form of a stone, to one in the form of a cat, and to another in the form of a human, angel or elf and etc. . He has created us but before that He has created time and space, material and energy and the rest of what we do need to exist upon, in any stage of our existence.

Anything that we see in universe is a sign (Ayeh) of Allah as it would have never existed if Allah was not existed and creating it instant by instant. Those who we call "Aaref-bel-lah" (knowing Allah better than others) are those who see Allah everywhere when looking around (Imam Ali AS has stated that I see no one unless I see Allah before him, with him and after him), not me and you and mountain and river. Allah is omnipresent but not in the sense that he has filled somewhere or not, neither he sits on a place called throne, nor he fits in any volume of his created universe, he is just beyond any of these concepts and the words used in Quran for him are most of the times TRANSLATIVE! Note this:

وَكَأَيِّن مِّنْ آيَةٍ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ يَمُرُّونَ عَلَيْهَا وَهُمْ عَنْهَا مُعْرِضُونَ

And how many Signs in the heavens and the earth do they pass by, yet they turn (their faces) away from them! (Yusof:105)

Which states the signs of Allah and not his parts or body limbs as He has none.

He has no mass as He has created masses and materials, and spaces that masses fill, or time through which masses evolve, or energy and light which can be emitted or translated from a place to another place, and He is just beyond any of His own creations. His creations in his scale of existence never exist at all, they exist only in our scale of existence and by this scale I do not mean a scale for size but a scale for the reality of existence. When we say "الله اکبر" (Allah is greater) it means He is greater than to be described in words not bigger than everything in size, as he has no size and He is just not measurable with the measure of a non-existent universe.

Also note that Allah Himself is even beyond His names, as His Hosna names are attributes that work in relation with His created universes (our universe being one among many universes that He has created), be it Ar-Rahman (the most Gracious), Ar-Rahim (the most Merciful), Al-Ghahhar (the Irresistible), Al-Montaghem (the revenger), Ash-Shakoor (the grateful), and etc., he is just beyond all these notions and He is beyond the infinite limit of these notions as well (all these names would coincide in the infinite limit, even the Al-montaghem and Al-Ghaffar would be the same for Allah as Allah is one unique existence without aspects, He is not like a coin that may turn from one side to another side).

Next note that when a concept is beyond our imagination we can never coin a description to Him by ourselves, Only Allah himself can describe Himself, anything that we say about Him would be like Allah has stated:

No knowledge have they of such a thing, nor had their fathers. It is a grievous thing that issues from their mouths as a saying what they say is nothing but falsehood! (Al-Kahf:5)

Or something like this:

But they have no knowledge therein. They follow nothing but conjecture; and conjecture avails nothing against Truth. (An-Najm:28)

That is, before He send a prophet we would never know if we are allowed to call Him Al-Montaghem or not, Al-Ghaffar or not, these are what we can say nothing about until Himself (who knows Himself and the only one who knows Him) let us know. Now we are introduced to His Hosna names so that we can call Him only through them, as He has ordered us in Quran as well. The only exceptions are those statements that instead of describing Him rather try to purify Him, like "Alleluia", "there is no god but Allah", "Allah is greater" and some few others …

People who don't know Allah well, but feel an attraction toward Allah, the Almighty, may ask Allah trough some names and attributes not actually allowed by Allah, but as long as they do not know the truth that will be ok, as they are not trying to lowering his grade from what He is to what He is not, they just don't know how they should call Him.

Anyway, Allah knows the best

Godspeed

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Firstly according to Islam universe is a creation of God among thousands of other universes and worshiping it is considered Shirk (polytheism). But for who do not know the truth and do not know Islam, still, it is different.

It depends on whether the person has sought and is serious about seeking out the truth or not. For example, if travel and immigration is needed to find the truth he/she should undertake this travel or immigration and do their best in striving for finding truth. In this case if they die and cannot find and know real Allah his striving will be accepted and rewarded by paradise or even higher reward than paradise. But if they only claim to been seeking the truth or not have striven enough then his worship (of the universe) will be considered as idol worshiping and Shirk, but still Allah is merciful and perhaps He may forgive him/her (but this not mean having a good rank at paradise).

As side note paradise has the same number levels as verses in the Quran and there are higher rewards than paradise such as meeting Allah. When meeting Allah all human senses are satisfied. But in paradise only one or some of them. For example when eating fruit (in paradise) only your sense of taste is satisfied. Also a human has more than 5 sense that will be activated after death.

There are also positions between hell and paradise like an animal grazing in pasturage.

So short answer is: If he/she is really, actively striving for truth seeking, then Yes.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنفُسِهِمْ قَالُوا فِيمَ كُنتُمْ قَالُوا كُنَّا مُسْتَضْعَفِينَ فِي الْأَرْ‌ضِ قَالُوا أَلَمْ تَكُنْ أَرْ‌ضُ اللَّـهِ وَاسِعَةً فَتُهَاجِرُ‌وا فِيهَا فَأُولَـئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرً‌ا

When angels take the souls of those who die in sin against their souls, they say: "In what (plight) Were ye?" They reply: "Weak and oppressed Were we in the earth." They say: "Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to immigrate in it?" Such men will find their abode in Hell,- What an evil refuge! - http://tanzil.net/#4:97

In this verse "Weak and oppressed Were we in the earth" means that because of all the propaganda and fake religions and sects around us we could not find the truth and the "straight path" of Allah and were trapped in fake belief systems.

This, below, is law and a promise of God to guide who do not just sit still and strive for research and seeking the truth:

وَالَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا فِينَا لَنَهْدِيَنَّهُمْ سُبُلَنَا وَإِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَمَعَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

And those who strive in Our (cause) - We will certainly guide them to our Paths: For verily Allah is with those who do right. http://tanzil.net/#29:69

If a human (even if is atheist) do real and serious strive for finding truth, Allah himself guided him with different methods and when he reach to some higher ranks send someone miraculously to talk and guide him to secrets of meeting God.

يَا أَيُّهَا الْإِنسَانُ إِنَّكَ كَادِحٌ إِلَى رَ‌بِّكَ كَدْحًا فَمُلَاقِيهِ

O thou man! Verily thou art ever toiling on towards thy Lord- painfully toiling,- but thou shalt meet Him. http://tanzil.net/#84:6

To meet with God many secrets are required, ones that cannot be found simply in laws of religion and only a Wali (ولی)can guide a human to meet God.

إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَّـهُ وَرَ‌سُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَ‌اكِعُونَ

Your (real) Wali (no less than) Allah, His Messenger, and the (fellowship of) believers,- those who establish regular prayers and regular charity while bowing down. http://tanzil.net/#5:55

According to Quran only those who seek the truth and always are on a "straight path" their worship will be accepted and will enter paradise and meet God.

Straight path is very, very, very, narrow and few people are on the straight path.

وَأَنَّ هَـذَا صِرَ‌اطِي مُسْتَقِيمًا فَاتَّبِعُوهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا السُّبُلَ فَتَفَرَّ‌قَ بِكُمْ عَن سَبِيلِهِ ذَلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُم بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

Verily, this is My way, leading straight: follow it: follow not (other) paths: they will scatter you about from His (great) path: thus doth He command you. That ye may be righteous. http://tanzil.net/#6:153

But the problem is what exactly the straight path is? And how we can distinguish it among many other paths? For example if one were to leave Jihad out of Straight path, what would we have done at the Battle of the Camel or Battle of Karbala? Allah and the Prophet did not leave this question without answer, however only a real seeker is needed to find the answer. Only one person in history claimed "I am the straight path". By reading Nahj al-Balaghah a straight path can be found more easily.

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Ok - I don't know about calling 'the universe' (as the universe is itself a created thing), but there's nothing wrong with using a different word than 'Allah' like 'God' or 'whatever Supreme Power is out there'.

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