After numerous discoveries by mankind, the world now believes that we are on a planet which is in a solar system revolving around the Sun.
Does Islam have any reference(s) to this? What is the concept of this?
I believe you refer to this verse.
The verse also points to the fact that also the sun is part of a larger system having its own orbit of revolving around the galaxy (or any larger entity, that is).
Since Islam started long before these scientific discoveries its role was not to prove or disprove any specific scientific fact, Instead, since it is a religion to govern ALL aspect of life its role was (and is) to create a healthy environment for science to flourish. Urging muslims to (discover) and (use) natural resources for the better benefit of mankind.