I would like to know what the Salat start and end times for each of the Fard Salats(Fajr, Zuhr, Asr, Magrib and Isha) are. And also the other ones i.e. Tahajjud, Ishraq, Chast and Awabbein.
There is a Hadith about that (mentioned below), according to it the timings are:
Fajr: begins when dawn begins (and fasting begins), and ends when the land glows (with sunlight).
Dhuhr: begins when the shadow is similar to the length the strap of a sandal, and ends when everything's length is equal to it's shadow's length.
Asr: begins when everything's length is equal to it's shadow's length, and ends when the shadow of everything is about twice as long as it is.
Maghrib: begins when the sun had set (and fasting ends), and that's its time, the sun setting (as long as there is twilight).
Isha: begins when the twilight has vanished, and ends when the third of night has gone.
Ibn Abbas narrated that : the Prophet said: "Jibril (peace be upon him] led me (in Salat) twice at the House. So he prayed Zuhr the first time when the shadow was similar to (the length of) the strap a sandal. Then he prayed Asr when everything was similar (to the length of) its shadow. Then he prayed Maghrib when the sun had set and the fasting person breaks fast. Then he prayed Isha when the twilight had vanished. Then he prayed Fajr when Fajr (dawn) began, and when eating is prohibited for the fasting person. The second time he prayed Zuhr when the shadow of everything was similar to (the length of) it, at the time of Asr the day before. Then he prayed Asr when the shadow of everything was about twice as long as it. Then he prayed Maghrib at the same time as he did the first time. Then he prayed Isha, the later one, when a third of the night had gone. The he prayed Subh when the land glowed. The Jibril turned towards me and said: "O Muhammad! These are the times of the Prophets before you, and the (best) time is what is between these two times." (Hasan)
حَدَّثَنَا هَنَّادُ بْنُ السَّرِيِّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ أَبِي الزِّنَادِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ عَيَّاشِ بْنِ أَبِي رَبِيعَةَ، عَنْ حَكِيمِ بْنِ حَكِيمٍ، وَهُوَ ابْنُ عَبَّادِ بْنِ حُنَيْفٍ أَخْبَرَنِي نَافِعُ بْنُ جُبَيْرِ بْنِ مُطْعِمٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ " أَمَّنِي جِبْرِيلُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَمُ عِنْدَ الْبَيْتِ مَرَّتَيْنِ فَصَلَّى الظُّهْرَ فِي الأُولَى مِنْهُمَا حِينَ كَانَ الْفَىْءُ مِثْلَ الشِّرَاكِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْعَصْرَ حِينَ كَانَ كُلُّ شَيْءٍ مِثْلَ ظِلِّهِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْمَغْرِبَ حِينَ وَجَبَتِ الشَّمْسُ وَأَفْطَرَ الصَّائِمُ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْعِشَاءَ حِينَ غَابَ الشَّفَقُ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْفَجْرَ حِينَ بَرَقَ الْفَجْرُ وَحَرُمَ الطَّعَامُ عَلَى الصَّائِمِ . وَصَلَّى الْمَرَّةَ الثَّانِيَةَ الظُّهْرَ حِينَ كَانَ ظِلُّ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ مِثْلَهُ لِوَقْتِ الْعَصْرِ بِالأَمْسِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْعَصْرَ حِينَ كَانَ ظِلُّ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ مِثْلَيْهِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْمَغْرِبَ لِوَقْتِهِ الأَوَّلِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الْعِشَاءَ الآخِرَةَ حِينَ ذَهَبَ ثُلُثُ اللَّيْلِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى الصُّبْحَ حِينَ أَسْفَرَتِ الأَرْضُ ثُمَّ الْتَفَتَ إِلَىَّ جِبْرِيلُ فَقَالَ يَا مُحَمَّدُ هَذَا وَقْتُ الأَنْبِيَاءِ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ . وَالْوَقْتُ فِيمَا بَيْنَ هَذَيْنِ الْوَقْتَيْنِ " . قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى وَفِي الْبَابِ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ وَبُرَيْدَةَ وَأَبِي مُوسَى وَأَبِي مَسْعُودٍ الأَنْصَارِيِّ وَأَبِي سَعِيدٍ وَجَابِرٍ وَعَمْرِو بْنِ حَزْمٍ وَالْبَرَاءِ وَأَنَسٍ .
Tamer Shlash's answer is all about fard prayers, let me provide the timings of nafil prayers.
It could be prayed after Isha and before Fajr Azaan. There is a hadith that after Isha whatever prayed will be considered as Thahajjud. But, praying at late night is the best time for it. If it is not possible to wake up before fajr Azaan, it is better to pray before sleep(after Isha).
It should be prayed after 20 minutes after sunrise. Praying at the time of sun-rise is prohibited. So, you need to wait for at-least 20 minutes.
It could be prayed after Ishraaq and before Zuhar Azaan. It is better to perform it after a quarter of the day has passed.
It could be prayed after Sunnat salat of Maqrib prayer. There is a hadith
Whoever prays, after the Maghrib, six rak’ât without talking of anything indecent in between them, it would be equivalent to twelve years of worship for him.- Tirmidhi