I would like to know what the names of all the Pillars (Arkans) that are in a Prayer(Salat). I know a few names Ruku, Sajda, etc. but I want to know the rest.
Please provide a detailed explanation.
There are 14 Arkan of Salat. These 14 pillars must be done for the salat to be accepted.
These actions are based on the evidences from Qur'an and Sunnah. You can find them listed here for each action.
All Sunni madh-habs (Hanafi, Shafi'i, Maliki, Hanbali) at least contain all these 14 Arkan of Salat.
Obligatory acts of prayer are eleven:
The elementals (Arkan) of Prayer are five:
951- *Some of the obligatory acts of prayers are elemental (Rukn). Hence, a person who does not offer them, whether intentionally or by mistake, his prayers become void. Some other obligatory acts of prayers are not elemental. Therefore, if they are omitted by mistake, the prayers does not become void.(Reference)
Reference and further details:
How to Perform the Daily Prayers (illustrated positions of Salat)