Is the eating of Horse meat Halal or not? I would like an answer with references to the Quran or Hadiths.
Salam. There are two views regarding eating meat of horse. I will try to write both below. But I will try to clear before that there is no order in Quran about the horse being halal or haram. So we will rely on Ahadith as:
- Eating Horse is Halal:
This term is more accepted because it has some valid ahadith. It is stated in Bukhari as:
Narrated Jabir bin `Abdullah: On the day of Khaibar, Allah's Messenger (SAW) forbade the eating of donkey meat and allowed the eating of horse meat. (Sahih al-Bukhari 4219)
Asma' reported: We slaughtered a horse and ate it during the lifetime of Allah's Messenger (SAW). (Sahih Muslim 1942 a)
Jabir b. 'Abdullah is reported to have said: We ate during the time of Khaibar the (flesh) of horses and of wild asses, but Allah's Messenger (SAW) prohibited us (to eat) the flesh of domestic asses. (Sahih Muslim 1941 b)
- Eating Horse is Makrooh
According to Imam Abu Haneefa and his two companions eating horse is makrooh. As it is stated in below Hadith:
It was narrated that Khalid bin Walid said: “The Messenger of Allah (SAW) forbade the flesh of horses, mules and donkeys.” (Sunnan Ibn-e-Maja Book 27, Hadith 3319)
But remember that the above Hadith is classified as Da'eef(weak) over there!
I tried to help you and if you have any other question ask in the comments.
Eating horse is makruh according to the Hanafi and Maliki madhab. Their evidence includes:
In the Quran 16:5-7, Allah mentions cattle and the various benefits that may be derived from them including their use in food.
However horses are then mentioned separately and being food is omitted from their purpose, and if it was permitted to eat them then that would be a major benefit worthy of being noted:
والخيل والبغال والحمير لتركبوها وزينة
And [He created] the horses, mules and donkeys for you to ride and [as] adornment.
Horses are an instrument of Jihad which we are told to accumulate; slaughtering and consuming them is contrary to that.
وأعدوا لهم ما استطعتم من قوة ومن رباط الخيل ترهبون به عدو الله وعدوكم وآخرين من دونهم لا تعلمونهم الله يعلمهم
And prepare against them whatever you are able of power and of steeds of war by which you may terrify the enemy of Allah and your enemy and others besides them whom you do not know [but] whom Allah knows.
There is difference in the ahadith about whether it is permitted or forbidden, so the cautionary approach would be to refrain from it.
أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم نهى عن أكل لحوم الخيل والبغال والحمير
The Messenger of Allah ﷺ forbade eating the flesh of horses, mules and donkeys
It is permitted according to the Shafi and Hanbali madhab, their evidence includes these ahadith:
نحرنا فرسا على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فأكلناه
We slaughtered a horse and ate it during the lifetime of Allah's Messenger (ﷺ).
أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم نهى يوم خيبر عن لحوم الحمر الأهلية وأذن في لحوم الخيل
Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) prohibited eating of the flesh of domestic asses on the Day of Khaibar, and permitted the cooking of the flesh of horses.
i have found proof using quran only, that horsemeat is halal.
And they say, "These animals and crops are forbidden; no one may eat from them except whom we will," by their claim. And there are those [camels] whose backs are forbidden [by them] and those upon which the name of Allah is not mentioned - [all of this] an invention of untruth about Him. He will punish them for what they were inventing.
you see, they say here about animals and crops.
6:141 answers to them about plants.
6:142 is about cattle, livestock animals:
And of the grazing livestock are carriers [of burdens] and those [too] small. Eat of what Allah has provided for you and do not follow the footsteps of Satan. Indeed, he is to you a clear enemy.
6:143 is about sheep and goats. 6:144 is about camels and cows.
then 6:145 says:
Say, "I do not find within that which was revealed to me [anything] forbidden to one who would eat it unless it be a dead animal or blood spilled out or the flesh of swine - for indeed, it is impure - or it be [that slaughtered in] disobedience, dedicated to other than Allah . But whoever is forced [by necessity], neither desiring [it] nor transgressing [its limit], then indeed, your Lord is Forgiving and Merciful."
counter-argument: predator animals except fish are haram, so this ayah does not work thus simply. answer: probably, this 6:145 ayah is only about cattle and livestock, thus, they are not included there at all. horses are of livestock, so must be mentioned there, if they were haram. and, this ayah is only about what is revealed. it might not be revealed about some things, haramness of which are already clearly known by humans. information about swine is revealed, because eating swine is doubtful for humans. predator animals except fish, for me, are not so much doubtful: they must be haram because they are not in place of food of humans in food chain, and, i think, they are naturally unattractive for humans as food. and also they are much rarer in nature and it would be expensive to grow them in farm, so, they are naturally not as important danger as swine.
Salamalleikum for all my dear brothers/As far as i know in some Muslim countries as Kazakhstan/Tatarstan large part of people there eat a horse meat/ It is tasty and healthy in case of dietology it is also concerned as a ;light; meat/ People in those countries normally prefer to drink a horse milk/ which is really unusual for taste/ Just come and visit Kazakhstan! You are welcome my brothers!
Holy Quran 16:115
إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةَ وَالدَّمَ وَلَحْمَ الْخِنزِيرِ وَمَا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ ۖ فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلَا عَادٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
He has only forbidden to you dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah. But whoever is forced [by necessity], neither desiring [it] nor transgressing [its limit] - then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.
Holy Quran 16:116
وَلَا تَقُولُوا لِمَا تَصِفُ أَلْسِنَتُكُمُ الْكَذِبَ هَٰذَا حَلَالٌ وَهَٰذَا حَرَامٌ لِّتَفْتَرُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ لَا يُفْلِحُونَ
And do not say about what your tongues assert of untruth, "This is lawful and this is unlawful," to invent falsehood about Allah. Indeed, those who invent falsehood about Allah will not succeed.
Holy Quran 16:117
مَتَاعٌ قَلِيلٌ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
[It is but] a brief enjoyment, and they will have a painful punishment.