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Most people belonging to a faith will do whatever it takes to raise their child to see only their hereditary faith as orthodox (righteous one) and all others as unorthodox.

If a person was only manipulated by his/her parents to declare their belonging to the Islamic faith at a tender age at which they were unfit to resist the pressures of cultivation but later, once they maybe reach their teens, they start thinking freely and come to terms that their association with the religion in the past was never genuinely theirs (as opposed to some people who do convert of their own volition), is their act considered apostasy and, as such, subject to the sanctions of leaving Islam?

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There are differences of opinions. First, let me disclose that this answer comes from a person who doesn't believe in apostate punishment.

Majority of scholars say that if you are born to a Muslim parents, then you are automatically Muslim regardless.

Alnawawi Alshafai النووي الشافعي says:

فمَن كان أبواه أو أحدهما مسلماً : استمر على الإسلام في أحكام الآخرة والدنيا

Whomever his parents or parent is Muslim, he is a Muslim in the eyes for the rules of life and hereafter. [شرح المسلم Almuslim Explained - 16 / 208]

Same was said by ابن قدامة الحنبلي in Almogani المغني [10/91].

Alsahafai Wazfir [Almogani 10/85] [Alkasanai 7/104] said that the coming of age is a requirement before becoming a Muslim.

Meaning if the children reverts before becoming of Age, he isn't considered a Muslim.

More on the fatwa here: http://islamqa.info/ar/165492

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