Be aware that if you read the Qur'an in a different language than Arabic that what you read is an interpretation/translation this might have mistakes or lacks meanings as the Arabic text/context and circumstances is very hard to translate with all its specification, so for instance you might find some translations who had more focus on the beauty of the language, while others try to translate a specific interpretation from tafseer books -which leads to a restriction in the meaning- etc.. Therefore you should either read in a big size translation which tries to address every aspect of the Verses or read a tafsir meanwhile or ask Muslim people -hoping they could give you a satisfactory answer- as you did or better scholars who may explain!
I must/should add that even Muslims (including Arabs) sometimes must ask Scholars or investigate in tafsir books!
It would be very helpful if you could provide the references (surah or surah#/verse#) you mentioned.
Now I'll try to refer to your points as far as I could find what you mentioned or assumed to be mistakes in my investigation:
- "In qu'ran It's written that God made creatures in pairs. But that It's not true since there are many creatures that live alone, reproduce alone ecc and actually refuse pairing. while there are many that don't actually need a pair."
First as a counterexample: if you buy a pair of socks or shoes would you say that they don't need a pair or that pair only means male/female?
The same is in the Arabic meaning of the word it might refer to a pair f/m or two opposite things or two things which have some kind of relationship as day and night (follow each other) and this is how even early tafsir book and the sahaba () interpreted the word pair.
In the Quran I could find the word pair (singular, plural and dual plural form) زَوْجَيْنِ, زوج .ازواج mentioned in may Verses here just 3 examples:
1) Who created in pairs all species, whether of vegetable kingdom or
of their own (i.e., human) kind, or of those things of which they know
[Surat Yaseen 36:36]
2) And We have created everything in pairs maybe that you learn a
lesson from it
(Surat adh-Dhaariyat 51:49)
3) and created you as pairs (of men and women)
[Surat an-Naba' 78:8]
The 1st Verse I quoted shows that the way Allah created the pairs are different, but the translation I quoted is a bit weak here an other translation is (Glory to Allah, Who created in pairs all things that the earth produces, as well as their own (human) kind and (other) things of which they have no knowledge.) this isn't far from the Arabic text we can understand that the 1st way is to create pairs from all what earth produces, and 2nd from their own race/kind (human/animal etc.) and 3rd from other things which you don't know this could also be interpreted as in a very different way which you can't imagine/know (at the moment).
- "That God created Mountains so that they can prevent earth from shaking. It's proven that earthquakes can happen everywhere, from the top of a mountain to the deepest part of the Sea, and as a matter of fact earthquakes and Mountains are made from the same Phenomenon."
About the Verse you mentioned [Surat Luqman 31:10]
you can read in the tafsir that it is narrated that the mountains prevent the earth from shaking because when Allah made earth it was shaking and the mountains made it stay kind of still. This may refer to a non-scientific attempt to explain tectonics!
But actually the Qur'an doesn't explicitly say "Mountain" and doesn't necessarily mean tectonics. The Qur'an actually uses the Arabic word رواسي (rawasi which is the plural of راسية which means something vertical and may also mean fixed) this word was interpreted as mountains by most of the mufassireen. Imam at-Tabari -one of the earlier scholars of tafseer- in his tafssir -see here in Arabic- of verse (16:15) -which actually is a kind of partial duplicate of verse 31:10- explains the creation of mountains as follows:
Allah has created mountains that are vertical and rather fix so that people may use them as guiding points and don't get lost on earth. Note that imam at-Tabari in his formulation made clear that not all mountains actually are fix and we know due to tectonics that this actually isn't the case, but it might look like some were rather fix for the human eye.
Further he also quoted some of the narrations that have rather been taken by scholars of tafseer like al-Baghawi, ibn Kathir etc. that rely on at-Tafssir bil ma'thur (tafseer that is strongly based on narrations, interpretation of earlier scholars like the sahaba and tabi'in and Qur'an itself) it seems none of those ever considered the simple explanation of at-Tabari.
Imam Fakhr ad-Dyn ar-Razi in his at-tafsir al-Kabir -see here in Arabic- explained the verse based on the word تميد which means moving to left and right without a clear direction and perturbation in general based on the example of ships in the sea as the word actually is originally used in this context. His explanation is that the earth's surface was somewhat swimming or moved by/with the surrounding water until the mountains helped it to get settled and he discussed this view based on three cases and came to conclusion that might be regarded as close to that of sheikh at-Taher ibn 'Ashur (see later) which is that the mountains actually stopped the spherical corpus of earth from moving (which we know is wrong).
Imam az-Zarkashi in his al-Kashaf -see here in Arabic- somewhat adapted the explanation of imam at-Tabari, and the example of the ship but he didn't go into details and so did ibn 'Atiyah.
Among the modern scholars sheikh at-Taher ibn 'Ashur after explaining the words of the verse -in his at-Tahrir wa-Tanwir see here in Arabic- and the meaning it may lead to he exclaimed a doubt and called this meaning "cryptic غامض" and said maybe the wisdom behind the creation of mountains actually had an effect on the movement of the earth as else a rather spherical form might have less friction which may lead to a kind of perturbation.
As I'm not a know-it-all and I also would like to get a scientific answer in stead of a narration which could end up as weak proof, I asked a question in the world-building section hoping for a geological explanation on what would happen if earth -as we know it- has no mountains you could read/follow the answers there and here are answers on the same Questions on earth-science which explain that mountains are the results of earthquakes!
On the other Hand there are Qur'an Verses quoting the Mountains claiming exactly the opposite of what you deduced or saw as a mistake. And therefore all other Verses seem to agree whit what you said! See for example (Surat An-Naml 27:88]
Today, you see the mountains and think that they are firmly set, but
on that Day they will be flying about like the clouds; this will be a
manifestation of the powers of Allah, Who has ordered everything with
wisdom. He is fully aware of what you do.
- "That God has given us Daily Day and Night. But there are some places on earth where It's always night or day. and if we go out of earth then there is not even that."
As for this point I can't see any problem or contradiction, as the Qur'an says clearly that day and night are gifts from Allah. And there's no place on earth and as far as I know, where it is all the time only day or only night. And such a phenomenon is mentioned in Qur'an as a thread in Surat al-Qassass (28:71-73)
O Prophet, say to them, "Have you ever considered that if Allah should
make the night perpetual for you, till the Day of Resurrection, which
deity, besides Allah, would bring you light? Don't you hear anything?"
(71) Ask them, "Have you ever considered that if Allah should make the
day perpetual for you, till the Day of Resurrection, which deity,
besides Allah, would bring you the night so that you may have rest in
it? Don't you see anything?"(72) It is His Mercy that He has made the
night and the day for you so that you may have rest (in the night) and
seek your Lord's bounty (in the day); maybe that you are grateful.(73)
Edit August 27th: A friend of mine just sent me a Wikipedia link about so called red dwarf planets which are some kind of planets or moons which turn around a planet but not around themselves so on one side it is allays night and the other always day (سبحان الله): a question would be is life on such a dwarf possible?
As a reference you quote something I couldn't find, are you sure you didn't mix up some Verses as to the 1st part it could be the Verse in Surat al-Furqan (25:47):
And it is He who has made the night for you as clothing and sleep [a
means for] rest
The last part could be from Surat Aal-'Imran (2:190)
Indeed, in the
creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the
night and the day are signs for those of understanding.
Thank you for your interesting question it was a pleasure to me to investigate. I hope I could give some helpful explanations!
And Allah knows best