It is true that the precise word of the Palestine has not come in the holy Quran as you mentioned. Also it is considered as a famous issue that the current Israel country has not an old historical record (in the current place as much as
I know), and such claiming from them are solely to justify..., meanwhile that place was famous as Palestine and Shaamaat since many years ago as well. But you ought to pay heed to some issues such as:
- Firstly it cannot be counted as a certain reason that it won't be the
right of X-country since its name has not available in the holy
Quran, otherwise it could be feasible to claim that majority (or all
) of the countries are not right, since their names are not available
in the holy Quran.
- Secondly, in regard to the mentioned name of the Palestine, the name
of Palestine has come from old Greek language, Actually it was
Palestinaa in Greek. And on the other hand, the main name of
Palestine was Kan'aan not Palestine.
Masjid al Aqsa has applied in the holy Quran as a Mosque which can be related to the Palestine or Kan'aan as a related Palestine name.
«سُبْحَانَ الَّذِی أَسْرَى بِعَبْدِهِ لَیْلاً مِّنَ الْمَسْجِدِ
الْحَرَامِ إِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ الأَقْصَى الَّذِی بَارَكْنَا حَوْلَهُ
لِنُرِیَهُ مِنْ آیَاتِنَا إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِیعُ البَصِیرُ
The first verse of Surah al-Isra
Some interpreters (Mufasers) term the following verses as the related verses to the Palestine as well
وَأَوْرَثْنَا الْقَوْمَ الَّذِينَ كَانُوا يُسْتَضْعَفُونَ مَشَارِقَ
الْأَرْضِ وَمَغَارِبَهَا الَّتِي بَارَكْنَا فِيهَا ۖ وَتَمَّتْ
كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ الْحُسْنَىٰ عَلَىٰ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ بِمَا صَبَرُوا
ۖ وَدَمَّرْنَا مَا كَانَ يَصْنَعُ فِرْعَوْنُ وَقَوْمُهُ وَمَا كَانُوا
And We caused the people who had been oppressed to inherit the eastern
regions of the land and the western ones, which We had blessed. And
the good word of your Lord was fulfilled for the Children of Israel
because of what they had patiently endured. And We destroyed [all]
that Pharaoh and his people were producing and what they had been
building. (137) / Surah Al-A’raaf:137
يَا قَوْمِ ادْخُلُوا الْأَرْضَ الْمُقَدَّسَةَ الَّتِي كَتَبَ اللَّـهُ
لَكُمْ وَلَا تَرْتَدُّوا عَلَىٰ أَدْبَارِكُمْ فَتَنقَلِبُوا خَاسِرِينَ
O my people, enter the Holy Land which Allah has assigned to you and
do not turn back [from fighting in Allah 's cause] and [thus] become
As a last significant point which you should pay heed to, is that absence of a matter's name in the holy Quran is not counted as a negative matter in order to denying the matter, Since as you possibly are aware, there are many significant points which are not mentioned in the Quran such as the number of prayers' Rek'ahs and so forth, then in case you couldn't prove the above-mentioned matter by the Quran, then you can prove it by referring to historical reasons as well.
Although the above-mentioned verses could be constructive and helpful. (God willing)