This is sort of a less thought and express subject these days and I would like to shed back some light on it.
Today we have some people expressing different viewpoint within the Ummah on the subject so I welcome all points of view concerning it.
Do you think today Rum refers to those who had a certain system of governance liken to the Romans? Does it refer to the Christians of European background? Does it refer to the West only? Does it refer to Russia only? These are some of viewpoints I have heard.
I also ask since the subject is somewhat very important since some important events in Islamic eschatology involve them (Romans).
Update: relevant Surah and Hadiths that could indicate Rum in a modern time
Behold! Allah said: "O Jesus! I will take thee and raise thee to Myself and clear thee (of the falsehoods) of those who blaspheme; I will make those who follow thee superior to those who reject faith, to the Day of Resurrection: Then shall ye all return unto me, and I will judge between you of the matters wherein ye dispute.
Quran (3:55) - Translation Yusuf Ali
The tafseer in (Jalal - Al-Jalalayn) is interesting.
And mention, when God said, ‘O Jesus, I am gathering you, seizing you, and raising you to Me, away from the world without death, and I am cleansing you of, removing you far away from, those who disbelieved, and I am setting those who follow you, those Christians and Muslims who believed in your prophethood, above those who disbelieved, in you, namely, the Jews, becoming above them through [definitive] argument and the sword, until the Day of Resurrection. Then to Me shall be your return, and I will decide between you, as to what you were at variance about, as regards religion.
It was narrated from Jabir bin Samurah, that Nafi' bin 'Utbah bin Abu Waqqas narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: "You will fight the Arabian Peninsula and victory will be granted by Allah. Then you will fight the Romans and victory will be granted (by Allah). Then you will fight Dajjal and victory will be granted (by Allah)." Jabir said: "Dajjal will not appear until you have fought the Romans."
Grade : Sahih (Darussalam)
Reference : Sunan Ibn Majah 4091
It was narrated from 'Abdullah bin Dinar, that Ibn 'Umar said: "The Messenger of Allah(s.a.w) said: 'When my Ummah walks in a proud march, and its servants are the children of kings, children of Persians and Romans, the evilest of them will be set over the best of them"
Grade : Sahih (Darussalam)
Reference : Jami` at-Tirmidhi 2261
Mustaurid al-Qurashi reported: I heard Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: The Last Hour would come (when) the Romans would form a majority amongst people. 'Amr said to him (Mustaurid Qurashi): See what you are saying? He said: I say what I heard from Allah's Messenger (ﷺ). Thereupon he said: If you say that, it is a fact for they have four qualities. They have the patience to undergo a trial and immediately restore themselves to sanity after trouble and attack again after flight. They (have the quality) of being good to the destitute and the orphans, to the weak and, fifthly, the good quality in them is that they put resistance against the oppression of kings.
Reference: Sahih Muslim 2898 a
Another hadith but longer, Sahih Muslim Book 041, Hadith Number 6924.
Please make sure to provide the source of your viewpoint and avoid political/sectarian debate
Both Tasfeer and Ta'wil are acceptable answer in my humble view