There isn’t phrase of “Sayidat Nisaa al aalamin” in Quran, directly. The verse you asked exist in Surat 'Āli `Imrān (verse 42) which have “Nisaa al aalamin”:
"إِذْ قالَتِ الْمَلائِکَةُ یا مَرْیَمُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفاکِ وَ
طَهَّرَکِ وَ اصْطَفاکِ عَلى نِساءِ الْعالَمین"
And [mention] when the angels said, "O Mary, indeed Allah has chosen
you and purified you and chosen you above the women of the worlds.
It means Allah has chosen Maryam between her contemporary women for being mother of Masih while she was maiden. But according to our narratives and hadiths, hazrat Zahra is “sayidat” of all women of the world which isn’t limited to her contemporary women.
“Sayidat Nisaa al aalamin” is a epithet which prophet Muhammad (pbuh) used to call hazrat Zahra by, for example:
نزل ملک من السماء فاستأذن اللَّه أن یسلّم علىّ، فبشّرنى انّ فاطمه سیده
نساء اهل الجنّه»
"An angel was sent and were allowed by God to sallam me, he gives me
enunciation that Fatemeh is “Sayidat Nisaa al aalamin””( al-Hâkim's
Mustadrak , volume3 , page151)
«یا فاطمه! الاترضین ان تکونى سیده نساء العالمین»
“Fatemeh…would’t you consent to be “Sayidat Nisaa al aalamin””(
Sahih Muslim, volume 3 , page 158)
«و امّا ابنتى فاطمه فانّها سیده نساء العالمین…»
“But my daughter Fatimah, she is “Sayidat Nisaa al aalamin””( Bihār
al-Anwār ,volume 43, page 172)
Imam al-Sadiq in the answer of mafzal ‘s question about phrase of prophet to hazrat fatemeh (“Sayidat Nisaa al aalamin”)said:
“Maryam was great woman between her contemporary women but hazrat fateme is great woman between all women of the world from beginning to end…”( Ma'ani al-akhbar written by al-Shaykh al-Saduq ,page 107)
In addition, Such questions exist in Quran about excellence of Bani Isra'il on others (Surat Al-Baqarah, verse 47.122) and excellence of Al Ibrahim and Al Imran on others in the world (Surat 'Ali `Imran,verse 33),too.
Which in all of them like the verse you asked, excellence is relative and limited to their time.