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As-Salaumu Alaykum!

Please provide proof from Al-Qur'an and/or reliable hadith to support the instruction to make Dzuhr and Asr prayers silently (without loud recitation of Al-Qur'an).

We pray - following Sunnah, because Prophet Muhammad, SalaLlahu Aleih Wassalam did so. How do we know How he did it? There are reliable hadithes which describes and supports it.Proof. We can't just do something, because others do. We absolutely must do as ALLAH instruced us in Al-Qur'an through the best , perfect example of the Prophet Muhammad, SalaLlahu Aleihi Wassalam.

I would like to hear any reliable hadith (if it exists), that Dzuhur and Asr prayers must/should be done silently. Because there is enough evidence of the opposite.

№1. Al-Qur'an, Surah 17:110

قُلِ ادعُوا اللَّهَ أَوِ ادعُوا الرَّحمٰنَ ۖ أَيًّا ما تَدعوا فَلَهُ الأَسماءُ الحُسنىٰ ۚ وَلا تَجهَر بِصَلاتِكَ وَلا تُخافِت بِها وَابتَغِ بَينَ ذٰلِكَ سَبيلًا

Say, ‘Invoke “Allah” or invoke “the All-beneficent.” Whichever [of His Names] you may invoke, to Him belong the Best Names.’ Be neither loud in your prayer, nor murmur it, but follow a middle course between these,

So - we are directly instructed by ALLAH Subhana Wa Talla to read our prayers outloud, not too loud and not too quite. Al-Qur'an superceeds everything, while Sunnah clarifies.

What does Sunnah tell us?

Narrated Abdullah bin Abi Qatada: My father said, "The Prophet (ﷺ) used to recite Al-Fatiha along with another Sura in the first two rakat of the Zuhr and the `Asr prayers and at times a verse or so was audible to us."

حَدَّثَنَا الْمَكِّيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، عَنْ هِشَامٍ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ أَبِي كَثِيرٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقْرَأُ فِي الرَّكْعَتَيْنِ مِنَ الظُّهْرِ وَالْعَصْرِ بِفَاتِحَةِ الْكِتَابِ، وَسُورَةٍ سُورَةٍ، وَيُسْمِعُنَا الآيَةَ أَحْيَانًا‏.‏ Reference : Sahih al-Bukhari 762 In-book reference : Book 10, Hadith 156 USC-MSA web (English) reference : Vol. 1, Book 12, Hadith 729 (deprecated numbering scheme)

I have found NO RELIABLE HADITH which instructs us to read Dzuhur or Asr - silently. In fact contradicting ALLAH in 17:110 - would be a deviation from faith. So I kindly ask to provide dalil, proof, references to Al-Qur'an and reliable hadith on the basis of which Dzuhur and Asr are conducted without audible recitation of Al-Qur'an.

Regards and Wassalaumu Alaikum Warahmatullah

1

Wa Alaykum as-salam,

i will start by quoting some ahadith which you seem to have missed

you might have missed this Hadith which is in Sahih al-Bukhari and also in Sunan abi Dawod:

Abu Ma’mar said: We asked Khabbab: Did the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) recit (the Quran) in the noon and afternoon prayers? He replied: Yes. We then asked: How did you know this? He said: By the shaking of his beard, may peace be upon him.

This Hadith indicates clearly that the prayer was silent (siry).
The Hadith you mentioned maybe a lesson as we know that the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to show his sahaba how to do the ahkam for example the main rule on how to pray is: "Pray as you have seen me praying" taken from a hadith like: (Here quoted from al adab -al mufrad)

Abu Sulayman Malik ibn al-Huwayrith said, "We came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, being young men of a similar age. We spent twenty nights with him. He thought that we desired our own people and he asked us about those of our family we had left behind, and we told him. He was merciful and kind, and said, 'Go back to your family. Instruct and command them. Pray as you have seen me praying. When it is time for the prayer, then let one of you give the adhan and let the oldest of you lead the payer.;:

Analysis of the hadith you quoted

As the narrator only said that they might here some verse and they know that each prayer without reading a fatiha is invalid! They were expecting him to read al-fatiha! But the narrator didn't mention a name of a sura or the verse as it was usual to jahr prayers! Therefore i would say that the Messenger taught them the limits for what is regarded as siri prayer as we now know: siri for a man is to read for himself up to let the next one to him listen. For a woman the higher limit is the lower limit for a man.

As when it comes to jahr prayer that means prayers you can read in them -partly- in loud voice the narrators could name some suwar (suras): For example: (some of the examples in al-Muwata' show what Abu Bakr, Omar, 'Othman and Ali (may Allah be pleased with them used to read))

  • In al Maghrib prayer

surat at-tur (52) (see in al-Buakhari and Muslim)

surat al-mursalat (77) (see al-Muwata' and Sunan ibn Majah)

a statement saying only short suwar (suras) (see al-Muwata')

An other quoting Vers (3:8) (see al-Muwata')

  • In Isha' prayer

    surat at-tyn (95) (see al-Muwata')

    surat Buruj(85) and At-Tariq (86) (Musnad Imam Ahmad) surat Al-Shams (91),Al-A’la (87),Al-Lail (92)] or Al-‘Alaq (96) (Sunan ibn Majah)

  • In a-sobh (farz of al fajr) prayer

    surat al-Baqara (2) in two raka'at (see al-Muwata')

    surat al Hajj (22) and surat yusuf (12) (see al-Muwata')

I lately found some ahadith quoting what the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon) him rectited in dhur prayer for example in Sahih Muslim and Jami' at-Thirmdhi, but this isn't a real contradiction to what I explained earlier, as you may find out when reading the next paragraph:

Now lets take a look at

the verse from Surat al-Isra' (17:110).

Surat al-Isra' is a mekkan surah. This means it was revealed in mekka. According to tafsir al-Qurtubi there are 5 different Narrations about the reason for it's revelation!

  1. According to ibn 'Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) (sahih al-Bukhari and Muslim): It was revealed in mekka because the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) used to pry aloud in congregation with his sahaba, and once the kufar used to hear him they harmed them or insult the Quran. Therefore Allah asked him not to read loudly, so that the kufar can't hear him, and not to murmur so that his sahaba couldn't hear him and try to find a midlle way.

  2. According to Um al Mu'minyn 'Aicha (May Allah be pleased with her) (to be find in Sahih Muslim) the Verse is talking about Dua'

  3. According to ibn Siryn some A'rab used to say the tashaod loudly and as we know the tashahod should be murmured according to a narration from abullah ibn Mas'ud (May Allah be pleased with him)

  4. Again according ibn Siryn (at-Tabari): Abu Bakr used to read with low voice (murmuring) while 'Omar used to recite aloud, therefore they have been asked to do it in the middle-way (and i think there was a hadith about this for the sobh/fajr prayer)

  5. Again according ibn 'Abass (May Allah be plesed with him) saying do not recite aloud the day (fard) prayers and do not murmur the night prayers! As for nafl/sunna prayers there's no rule you could pray with low or high voice as the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) used to do both!

a 6. Narration from al Hassan is comparing the loud and low recitation to adulation or flattery

All these 6 meanings go ahead with the way we used to pray: Daytime fard with low voice (or silently) and nighttime fard somekind of loudly voice (at least partly).

And Allah knows best

  • Jazakallah Khair. So, I was wondering, can we pray fully silently (zero volume) while Tashahhud, bowing, sujood? or should we at least murmur? Next, Prophet (SAW) used to recite Zuhr, Asr silently, does that mean murmur or fully silently? In general is it allowed to whisper rather than murmur obeying Qur'an 17:110? Please bear with me. – servant-of-Wiser Apr 15 '16 at 17:24
  • Also, what to do when we are in Jama'at, what if the people besides are being disturbed by my whispering/murmuring and they complain? – servant-of-Wiser Apr 15 '16 at 17:27
  • 1
    briefly: Jahr only applies or is a matter of discussion for Quran recitation in the two first rak'as and for the imam in first place. – Medi1Saif Apr 17 '16 at 19:22
  • @Believer what is the exact difference between whispering or murmuring? sir or siri prayer means your voice (as a man) shouldn't reach more then your next neighbors in the row (and that's the highest volume). If somebody complains then you may have raised your voice too much, and should try to lower it as much as you can. The best why for that would be to pray and recite for yourself this means move your lips without or with as few sound as you feel comfortable with! See also islam.stackexchange.com/questions/21404/… – Medi1Saif Apr 21 '16 at 7:18

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